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Kelly Pritchett, Robert C. Pritchett, Lauren Stark, Elizabeth Broad and Melissa LaCroix

always equate to improved performance ( Close et al., 2013 ). More recent studies suggest that a substantial portion of elite athletes with a chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) have insufficient/deficient 25(OH)D status ( Barbonetti et al., 2016 ; Flueck et al., 2016a ; Pritchett et al., 2016 ), which

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Rachel A. Hildebrand, Bridget Miller, Aric Warren, Deana Hildebrand and Brenda J. Smith

Increasing evidence indicates that compromised vitamin D status, as indicated by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D), is associated with decreased muscle function. The purpose of this study was to determine the vitamin D status of collegiate athletes residing in the southern U.S. and its effects on muscular strength and anaerobic power. Collegiate athletes (n = 103) from three separate NCAA athletic programs were recruited for the study. Anthropometrics, vitamin D and calcium intake, and sun exposure data were collected along with serum 25-OH D and physical performance measures (Vertical Jump Test, Shuttle Run Test, Triple Hop for Distance Test and the 1 Repetition Maximum Squat Test) to determine the influence of vitamin D status on muscular strength and anaerobic power. Approximately 68% of the study participants were vitamin D adequate (>75 nmol/L), whereas 23% were insufficient (75–50 nmol/L) and 9%, predominantly non-Caucasian athletes, were deficient (<50 nmol/L). Athletes who had lower vitamin D status had reduced performance scores (p < .01) with odds ratios of 0.85 on the Vertical Jump Test, 0.82 on the Shuttle Run Test, 0.28 on the Triple Hop for Distance Test, and 0.23 on the 1 RM Squat Test. These findings demonstrate that even NCAA athletes living in the southern US are at risk for vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and that maintaining adequate vitamin D status may be important for these athletes to optimize their muscular strength and power.

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Amanda Zaleski, Beth Taylor, Braden Armstrong, Michael Puglisi, Priscilla Clarkson, Stuart Chipkin, Charles Michael White, Paul D. Thompson and Linda S. Pescatello

& Stuhldreher, 2011 ). Low 25(OH)D status is associated with a myriad of negative health outcomes including poor muscular health, cognitive decline, cancer, and premature death ( Al Mheid et al., 2011 ; Al Mheid & Quyyumi, 2017 ; Muscogiuri et al., 2017 ). Accumulating evidence from observational trials and

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Heather L. Colleran, Andrea Hiatt, Laurie Wideman and Cheryl A. Lovelady

were thawed once and analyzed in triplicate. Samples for baseline and endpoint for each participant were analyzed in the same assay to eliminate interassay variability; however, 1-year samples were analyzed separately. Serum 25(OH)D status was also measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (450

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Michelle S. Rockwell, Madlyn I. Frisard, Janet W. Rankin, Jennifer S. Zabinsky, Ryan P. Mcmillan, Wen You, Kevin P. Davy and Matthew W. Hulver

vitamin D effective in preventing a seasonal decline in 25(OH)D status is needed. The 5,000 IU/day dose we used is higher than the tolerable upper limit of 4,000 IU/day established by the National Academy of Medicine (formerly known as the Institute of Medicine), but lower than the No

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substantial immune perturbations. However, the negative correlation between 25 (OH)D status and IL-8 responses in the euhydrated state warrants further investigation. Part of the study was funded by University of East London as part of David Dixon’s UEL Alumni ‘Start up Research’ grant. Impact of Vitamin D

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Hans Braun, Judith von Andrian-Werburg, Wilhelm Schänzer and Mario Thevis

–50 nmol/L), and “adequate >50” (>50 nmol/L) ( 9 , 39 ). In addition, data were considered “adequate >75” with respect to Heaney et al ( 24 ) who defined 25(OH)D status >75 nmol/L as adequate. Statistical Analysis All data were tested for normal distribution using Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Depending on the