also examines physical performance measures (400-m walk and timed chair stands) that are objective indicators of physical function. The research targets an understudied population of rural Midwestern women who have documented health disparities, and who are considered a designated priority population
Patricia A. Hageman, Carol H. Pullen and Michael Yoerger
vigorous physical activity. Outcome measures of interest included functional performance measures assessed at participants’ OAI 96-month follow-up, 4 years following the baseline for this analysis (OAI 48-month). The functional measures include participants’ performance on a 400-m walk test, 20-m walk test
Michael P. Corcoran, Miriam E. Nelson, Jennifer M. Sacheck, Kieran F. Reid, Dylan Kirn, Roger A. Fielding, Kenneth K.H. Chui and Sara C. Folta
assessment with the exception of the 400-m walk test and accelerometry measurements (assessed at baseline and 6 months only). Assessors were blinded at all times to which program an individual was participating in. Exercise-Nutritional Supplement Program (ENP) Intervention The ENP was designed as a 3-day
Kelley K. Pettee Gabriel, Rebecca L. Rankin, Chong Lee, Mary E. Charlton, Pamela D. Swan and Barbara E. Ainsworth
The 400 m walk test has been used in older adults; however, the applicability in middle-aged populations is unknown.
Data were obtained from the Evaluation of Physical Activity Measures in Middle-Aged Women (PAW) Study and included 66 women (52.6 ± 5.4 years). Participants were instructed to walk at a brisk, maintainable pace; time taken to complete the 400 m was recorded in seconds. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to assess test-retest reliability. Spearman rank order correlation coefficients were used to examine the concurrent validity of the walk test with cardiorespiratory fitness and associations with physical activity, body composition, flexibility, static balance, and muscular fitness, adjusted for age and body mass index.
Participants completed the walk at visits 4 and 5 in 248.0 and 245.0 seconds, respectively. The walk test had excellent reproducibility [ICC = 0.95 (95% CI: 0.92, 0.97)] and was significantly associated with estimated (ρ = −0.43; P < 0.0001) and measured (ρ = −0.56; P < 0.001) VO2max. The walk test was also significantly related to physical activity, body composition, flexibility, and balance.
These findings support the utility of the 400 m walk test to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness and reflect free-living physical activity in healthy, middle-aged women.
Leslie A. Pruitt, Nancy W. Glynn, Abby C. King, Jack M. Guralnik, Erin K. Aiken, Gary Miller and William L. Haskell
The authors explored using the ActiGraph accelerometer to differentiate activity levels between participants in a physical activity (PA, n = 54) or “successful aging” (SA) program (n = 52). The relationship between a PA questionnaire for older adults (CHAMPS) and accelerometry variables was also determined. Individualized accelerometry-count thresholds (ThreshIND) measured during a 400-m walk were used to identify “meaningful activity.” Participants then wore the ActiGraph for 7 days. Results indicated more activity bouts/day ≥10 min above ThreshIND in the PA group than in the SA group (1.1 ± 2.0 vs 0.5 ± 0.8, p = .05) and more activity counts/day above ThreshIND for the PA group (28,101 ± 27,521) than for the SA group (17,234 ± 15,620, p = .02). Correlations between activity counts/hr and CHAMPS ranged from .27 to .42, p < .01. The ActiGraph and ThreshIND might be useful for differentiating PA levels in older adults at risk for mobility disability.
Joaquin U. Gonzales, Jordan Shephard and Neha Dubey
We tested the hypothesis that the intensity of daily ambulation would relate with functional walking capacity in older adults. Forty-three women (n = 25) and men (n = 18) between the ages of 60-78 years wore an accelerometer for measurement of average daily steps and 30-min peak stepping cadence. A 400-m walk test was used to measure walking speed. No sex difference was found for average daily steps (p = .76), average peak cadence (p = .96), or walking speed (p = .89). Daily steps (women: r = .68, p < .01; men: r = .04) and peak cadence (women: r = .81, p < .01; men: r = −.16) were positively correlated with walking speed in women but not in men. After controlling for daily steps, peak cadence remained significantly associated with walking speed in women (partial r = .61, p < .01). Walking intensity during daily ambulation is independently related to functional walking capacity in older adults, albeit this relation may be more significant for women than men.
Anthony P. Marsh, Elizabeth A. Chmelo, Jeffrey A. Katula, Shannon L. Mihalko and W. Jack Rejeski
The purpose of this study was to determine whether a walking program supplemented by tasks designed to challenge balance and mobility (WALK+) could improve physical function more than a traditional walking program (WALK) in older adults at risk for mobility disability. 31 community-dwelling older adults (M ± SD age = 76 ± 5 yr; Short Physical Performance Battery [SPPB] score = 8.4 ± 1.7) were randomized to treatment. Both interventions were 18 sessions (1 hr, 3×/wk) and progressive in intensity and duration. Physical function was assessed using the SPPB and the 400-m-walk time. A subset of participants in the WALK group who had relatively lower baseline function showed only small improvement in their SPPB scores after the intervention (0.3 ± 0.5), whereas a subset of participants in the WALK+ group with low baseline function showed substantial improvement in their SPPB scores (2.2 ± 0.7). These preliminary data underscore the potential importance of tailoring interventions for older adults based on baseline levels of physical function.
Renee M. Jeffreys, Thomas H. Inge, Todd M. Jenkins, Wendy C. King, Vedran Oruc, Andrew D. Douglas and Molly S. Bray
The accuracy of physical activity (PA) monitors to discriminate between PA, sedentary behavior, and nonwear in extremely obese (EO) adolescents is unknown.
Twenty-five subjects (9 male/16 female; age = 16.5 ± 2.0 y; BMI = 51 ± 8 kg/m2) wore 3 activity monitors (StepWatch [SAM], Actical [AC], Actiheart [AH]) during a 400-m walk test (400MWT), 2 standardized PA bouts of varying duration, and 1 sedentary bout.
For the 400MWT, percent error between observed and monitor-recorded steps was 5.5 ± 7.1% and 82.1 ± 38.6% for the SAM and AC steps, respectively (observed vs. SAM steps: −17.2 ± 22.2 steps; observed vs. AC steps: −264.5 ± 124.8 steps). All activity monitors were able to differentiate between PA and sedentary bouts, but only SAM steps and AH heart rate were significantly different between sedentary behavior and nonwear (P < .001). For all monitors, sedentary behavior was characterized by bouts of zero steps/counts punctuated by intermittent activity steps/counts; nonwear was represented almost exclusively by zero steps/counts.
Of all monitors tested, the SAM was most accurate in terms of counting steps and differentiating levels of PA and thus, most appropriate for EO adolescents. The ability to accurately characterize PA intensity in EO adolescents critically depends on activity monitor selection.
Jocelyn F. Hafer, Mark S. Miller, Jane A. Kent and Katherine A. Boyer
analysis of data from a larger study examining the effects of age and PA on biomechanical risk factors for knee osteoarthritis. 42 All participants completed 2 study visits at least 7 days apart. At the first study visit, participants were assigned activity monitors, performed a 400-m walk to determine
Nicolas Farina and Ruth G. Lowry
) in a population-based sample . Neurology, 77 ( 13 ), 1272 – 1275 . doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e318230208a 10.1212/WNL.0b013e318230208a Schneider , P.L. , Crouter , S.E. , Lukajic , O. , & Bassett , D.R. ( 2003 ). Accuracy and reliability of 10 pedometers for measuring steps over a 400-m walk