The primary purpose of this study was to determine the reproducibility of the 6-min-walk test (6MWT) in older women. A secondary purpose was to document heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in response to the 6MWT. Twenty-eight women with an average age of 80.0 years (±5.2) participated. They performed 2 trials of the 6MWT on 3 separate days, for a total of 6 trials. Heart rate, BP, RPE, and the total distance walked were recorded for each trial. The results indicated a significant increase from Trial 1 to Trial 2, with no differences between Trials 2–6, F(5, 131) = 7.02, p = .000. HR and BP were consistent across the 6 trials, and RPE was higher for the second trial on the second day of testing, F(5, 131) = 2.72, p = .023. The intraclass correlation coefficient for distance walked was .94. After the initial trial, performance on the 6MWT appears to be stable in older women.
Claire Peel and Diane Ballard
Roberta E. Rikli and C. Jessie Jones
The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a 6-min walk test as a measure of physical endurance in older adults. Seventy-seven subjects, ages 60-87. performed three separate 6-min walk tests and a treadmill test and completed questionnaire items assessing physical activity level and functional status. The 6-min walk had good test-retest reliability (.88 <R < .94). particularly when a practice trial preceded the test trial. Convergent validity of the 6-min walk was demonstrated by its moderate correlation (.71 < r < .82) with treadmill performance. Construct validity was assessed by determining the ability of the test to detect differences between different age and activity level groups. As expected, walking scores decreased significantly across decades and were significantly lower for low-active subjects compared to high-active subjects. There was a moderate relationship between 6-min walk scores and self-reported functional ability. It was concluded that the 6-min walk can be used to obtain reasonably reliable and valid measures of physical endurance in older adults and that it moderately reflects overall physical functional performance.
Dane R. Van Domelen, Paolo Caserotti, Robert J. Brychta, Tamara B. Harris, Kushang V. Patel, Kong Y. Chen, Nanna Ýr Arnardóttir, Gudny Eirikdottir, Lenore J. Launer, Vilmundur Gudnason, Thórarinn Sveinsson, Erlingur Jóhannsson and Annemarie Koster
Accelerometers have emerged as a useful tool for measuring free-living physical activity in epidemiological studies. Validity of activity estimates depends on the assumption that measurements are equivalent for males and females while performing activities of the same intensity. The primary purpose of this study was to compare accelerometer count values in males and females undergoing a standardized 6-minute walk test.
The study population was older adults (78.6 ± 4.1 years) from the AGES-Reykjavik Study (N = 319). Participants performed a 6-minute walk test at a self-selected fast pace while wearing an ActiGraph GT3X at the hip. Vertical axis counts·s−1 was the primary outcome. Covariates included walking speed, height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, femur length, and step length.
On average, males walked 7.2% faster than females (1.31 vs. 1.22 m·s−1, P < .001) and had 32.3% greater vertical axis counts·s−1 (54.6 vs. 39.4 counts·s−1, P < .001). Accounting for walking speed reduced the sex difference to 19.2% and accounting for step length further reduced the difference to 13.4% (P < .001).
Vertical axis counts·s−1 were disproportionally greater in males even after adjustment for walking speed. This difference could confound free-living activity estimates.
Neslihan Duruturk, Nihan Ozunlu Pekyavas, Atakan Yρlmaz and Metin Karatas
Aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacities are important components of athletic performance. The use of Kinesio Taping® (KT) as a supplementary treatment in athletic settings has increased in the recent years. KT can facilitate muscle contraction, which may be useful for improving performance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the application of KT to the quadriceps muscle has any effect on anaerobic and aerobic performance in young healthy individuals.
Randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical study.
Baskent University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation.
Thirty-two healthy male participants were randomly assigned to either the KT group or a sham KT (SKT) group.
The KT muscle facilitation technique was applied to the quadriceps muscle bilaterally and measurements were taken 45 min later to ensure full adhesion.
Main Outcome Measures:
The Wingate cycle ergometer test was used to assess peak anaerobic power (peak AnP, in Watts) and exercise capacity (Watt/kg), while the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) was used to assess aerobic exercise capacity of the participants. Comparisons between groups were performed using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test, while those between baseline and posttaping used the nonparametric Wilcoxon test.
No significant difference was found between the two groups in the aerobic or anaerobic test parameters (p > .05). Within the groups, a significant improvement in time factors in peak AnP (929.7 2 ± 184.37 W to 1043.49 ± 224.42 W) was found only in the KT group (p = .028) and no other parameter was significantly different (p > .05).
KT applied to the quadriceps muscle can positively improve anaerobic exercise performance and athletic performance capacity. However, KT did not affect aerobic capacity. Further research is needed to show that KT can improve and support anaerobic and aerobic exercise capacity in healthy participants or athletes.
Lütfiye Akkurt, İpek Alemdaroğlu Gürbüz, Ayşe Karaduman and Öznur Tunca Yilmaz
dorsiflexion movement angle was recorded in degrees, in which a higher degree indicated a greater flexibility of the gastrocnemius ( 27 ). Figure 1 —Popliteal angle test. Physical Performance Assessment The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is a standard test used to evaluate functional capacity in neuromuscular
Wael Maktouf, Sylvain Durand, Bruno Beaune and Sébastien Boyas
.4 (10.1) 95.7 (18.5) – – NS .57 39.0 <.01 .57 48.9 <.01 Median (IQR) 151.5 (15.7) 139.5 (2.9) 93.6 (21.7) Abbreviations: 6-MWT, 6-minute walk test; BMI, body mass index; IQR, interquartile range; NS, not significant; NWG, normal weight group; OG, obese group; OWG, overweight group; TT, Tinetti test
Elaine Trudelle-Jackson, Emerenciana Hines, Ann Medley and Mary Thompson
power of the knee extensors were assessed using the Biodex dynamometer. After a 5-minute rest period, the 6-minute walk test (6-MWT) and the stair-climbing power test (SCPT) were administered. The same tests were administered in a second testing session at completion of the assigned intervention. Muscle
Anni Rava, Anu Pihlak, Jaan Ereline, Helena Gapeyeva, Tatjana Kums, Priit Purge, Jaak Jürimäe and Mati Pääsuke
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in body composition, neuromuscular performance, and mobility in healthy, regularly exercising and inactive older women, and examine the relationship between skeletal muscle indices and mobility. Overall, 32 healthy older women participated. They were divided into groups according to their physical activity history as regularly exercising (n = 22) and inactive (n = 10) women. Body composition, hand grip strength, leg extensor muscle strength, rapid force development, power output, and mobility indices were assessed. Regularly exercising women had lower fat mass and higher values for leg extensor muscle strength and muscle quality, and also for mobility. Leg extensor muscle strength and power output during vertical jumping and appendicular lean mass per unit of body mass were associated with mobility in healthy older women. It was concluded that long-term regular exercising may have beneficial effects on body composition and physical function in older women.
Thomas M. Maden-Wilkinson, Jamie S. McPhee, David A. Jones and Hans Degens
To investigate reasons for the age-related reduction in physical function, we determined the relationships between muscle size, strength, and power with 6-min walk distance (6MWD) and timed up-and-go performance in 49 young (23 ± 3.1 years) and 66 healthy, mobile older adults (72 ± 5 years). While muscle mass, determined by DXA and MRI, did not correlate with performance in the older adults, power per body mass, determined from a countermovement jump, did correlate. The 40% lower jumping power observed in older adults (p < .05) was due to a lower take-off velocity, which explained 34% and 42% of the variance in 6MWD in older women and men, respectively (p < .01). The lower velocity was partly attributable to the higher body mass to maximal force ratio, but most was due to a lower intrinsic muscle speed. While changes in muscle function explain part of the age-related reduction in functional performance, ~60% of the deficit remains to be explained.
Layci J. Harrison, Kala L. Young, Sandra L. Stevens and Jennifer L. Caputo
A 19-year-old collegiate softball player collided with a fence while trying to catch a fly ball, resulting in a greenstick fibular fracture. Underwater treadmill training (UTT) was used as a modality to supplement traditional physical therapy (TPT). Active range of motion (AROM) in all directions for the knee, hip, and ankle, girth of the thigh and lower leg, static balance, and 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) distance were assessed pre- and postintervention. The addition of UTT to TPT led to postintervention increases in AROM, static balance, and limb girth, with no additional discomfort to the participant.