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Feng-Hua Tsai, I-Hua Chu, Chun-Hao Huang, Jing-Min Liang, Jia-Hroung Wu, and Wen-Lan Wu

The Achilles tendon is located at the back of the ankle and is important for various human activities, such as walking and running. 1 Most tendons in the foot and ankle bear a maximum load of about 30 megapascal (MPa) during human activity, but the Achilles tendon load is about 67 MPa 2 and

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Tijs Delabastita, Stijn Bogaerts, and Benedicte Vanwanseele

of muscle force and functional performance ( Narici, Maffulli, & Maganaris, 2008 ). Because the Achilles tendon is the longest tendon in the human body, its pronounced energy storage capacity and its important influence on the gastrocnemius and soleus muscle work could impact functional performance

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Alfredo Bravo-Sánchez, Pablo Abián, Filipa Sousa, Fernando Jimenez, and Javier Abián-Vicén

the process of returning to play ( Park & Kwon, 2011 ) or aging effects ( Hsiao et al., 2015 ). Most of the studies evaluate a tendon connecting a muscle to a bone, such as the Achilles tendon ( De Zordo et al., 2010 ), although the data on the tendons connecting two bones, such as the patellar tendon

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Jared R. Fletcher and Brian R. MacIntosh

for the Achilles tendon, to allow estimation of plantar flexion force. The Achilles tendon moment arm can also be measured in 3 dimensions (3D) across ankle angles using MRI. 9 However, due to limited accessibility and considerable time and costs associated with its use, MRI may not be a viable

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Steven J. Obst, Lee Barber, Ashton Miller, and Rod S. Barrett

Estimates of in vivo Achilles tendon (AT) force are needed to measure tendon mechanical properties as a function of the measured net ankle joint torque, and to understand AT function using musculoskeletal modeling approaches. The AT moment arm is required to convert the measured external ankle

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Iván Chulvi-Medrano, Moisés Picón-Martínez, Juan Manuel Cortell-Tormo, Juan Tortosa-Martínez, Diego Alexandre Alonso-Aubin, and Yasser Alakhdar

after LI-BFRT compared with high-intensity RT in the patellar tendon, finding similar responses in both training protocols. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies analyzing this impact on the Achilles tendon. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze the thickness changes in

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Daichi Tomita, Tadashi Suga, Hiromasa Ueno, Yuto Miyake, Takahiro Tanaka, Masafumi Terada, Mitsuo Otsuka, Akinori Nagano, and Tadao Isaka

Superior sprint performance is achieved using gross torques of the lower limb joints 1 potentially by increasing peak vertical ground reaction force. 2 , 3 The Achilles tendon (AT) plays an important role in storing and returning elastic energy during the stance phase of human locomotion

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Carly C. Sacco, Erin M. Gaffney, and Jesse C. Dean

2 distinct postural tasks in neurologically intact controls. We delivered vibration to the skin directly over the Achilles tendon, potentially influencing sensory feedback related to either skin stretch or length changes in the plantarflexor musculotendon complex. We tested whether white noise

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Christina Davlin and Jody Jenike

Objective:

To present the case of a Division I female college basketball player with a complete Achilles tendon rupture.

Background:

A 19-year-old, female college basketball player ruptured her right Achilles tendon during preseason conditioning. She had no previous history of heel cord symptoms.

Treatment:

The athlete underwent open surgical repair of Achilles tendon. The athlete successfully progressed through a functional rehabilitation program focused on early mobilization and weight bearing. The rehabilitation program was continually modified to address deficiencies and to keep the athlete actively engaged. She was cleared for full, unrestricted activity 15 weeks and 3 days after surgery and returned to game participation in 16 weeks.

Conclusions:

This case provides evidence that early mobilization and weight bearing can be used while still protecting the repaired tendon.

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Sharon J. Dixon and David G. Kerwin

This study investigated the influence of heel lift interventions on the loading of the Achilles tendon for heel-toe runners. It was hypothesized that the peak Achilles tendon force and peak rate of loading would be reduced by the increase in heel lift, and that the peak Achilles tendon force would occur significantly later in stance. Achilles tendon forces were determined by calculating sagittal-plane ankle joint moments using inverse-dynamics techniques and dividing these moments by Achilles tendon moment arm lengths. Methods for estimating Achilles tendon moment arm length using skin markers were justified via MRI data for one participant. Seven participants underwent running trials under three heel lift conditions: zero, 7.5-mm, and 15-mm heel lift. Average magnitude and occurrence time of peak Achilles tendon force and peak rate of loading were determined for each condition over the 7 participants. Despite group reductions in peak Achilles tendon force and peak rate of loading for the increased heel lift conditions, statistical analysis (ANOVA) revealed no significant differences for these variables, p > 0.05. Individual participant observations highlighted varied responses to heel lift; both increases and decreases in peak Achilles tendon force were observed. For the group data, the time of peak impact force occurred significantly later in the 15-mm heel lift condition than in the zero heel lift, p < 0.05. It is suggested that the success of increased heel lift in treating Achilles tendon injury may be due to a later occurrence of peak Achilles tendon force in response to this intervention, reducing Achilles tendon average rate of loading. In addition, the individuality of Achilles tendon peak force changes with heel lift intervention highlights the need for individual participant analysis.