African marathoners have dominated their non-African counterparts in recent years, in terms of both performance times and head-to-head competition. For example, the men’s marathon world record has fallen nearly 2.5 minutes since 2003 across 6 record-breaking performances, all by athletes with
Tyler J. Noble and Robert F. Chapman
comments in Dublin over his two-day visit. He referred to four Irish rugby players who had refused availability for selection for the 1981 tour of South Africa on moral grounds. Their refusal to be considered for the tour represented a significant symbolic victory in the Irish anti-apartheid struggle
Jerry Segwaba, Desiree Vardhan, and Patrick Duffy
The South African government and the South African Sport Confederation and Olympic Committee (SASCOC) have committed to the creation of an active and winning nation through sport. As part of the national sports plan, coaching has been identified as a key element in the success of the South African sports system. In this context, SASCOC commissioned the development of the South African Coaching Framework, which was formally launched in 2011. The development and launch of the Framework has been accompanied by the gathering of research and scoping data to inform the processes of planning, implementation and impact evaluation. This article describes the current position of coaching in South Africa and the key issues being addressed through the South African Coaching Framework. The challenges that remain to be faced in maximising the contribution of sport coaching to the sporting and social vision of the nation are also identifed.
Maria Kosma, David Buchanan, and Jan Hondzinski
, 2016b ). Moreover, disparities in levels of physical activity continue to exist. Based on the most recent National Health Interview Survey on all age groups ( U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS], Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2016b ), 43.6% of African Americans
Tilahun Nigatu Haregu, Christopher Khayeka-Wandabwa, Nicholas Ngomi, Samuel Oti, Thaddaeus Egondi, and Catherine Kyobutungi
Insufficient physical activity and sedentary behavior are key risk factors for the emergence of noncommunicable diseases in the sub-Saharan African setting. Given the limited evidence base, research is required to understand the trends.
This study describes the patterns of physical activity and sedentary behavior in a large sample of urban slum residents in Nairobi, Kenya.
We used data collected from 5190 study participants as part of cardiovascular disease risk assessment. Data were collected about work-, transport-, and recreation-related physical activity as well as sitting and sleeping time. Using time spent on each type of physical activity and respective metabolic equivalents (METs), patterns of physical activity and associated factors were evaluated using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations, and logistic regression.
Nearly 50% of the study population was involved in work-related physical activities, whereas only 6.3% was involved in recreation-related physical activities. Involvement in physical activities decreased with age, and 17.4% had <600 MET-minutes per week. Higher sitting time was associated with insufficient physical activity. There were substantial gender differences in the time spent for physical activity.
Given the positive relationship between insufficient physical activity and sedentary behavior, complementary interventions that improve physical activity and at the same time reduce sitting time are needed.
Tshepang Tshube and Stephanie J. Hanrahan
’s called “ phaladza bakalag’wa .” The cow is normally slaughtered and shared among the groom and bride’s families. Botswana is considered one of the most successful multiparty constitutional democracies in Africa ( Sebudubudu & Mooketsane, 2016 ). Elections have been conducted freely, fairly, and on
Rebecca E. Hasson
al., 2008 ; Whitt-Glover et al., 2009 ; Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 2009 ). Self-reported physical activity levels indicate that African-American and Latino adolescents age 9–13 participate in less leisure-time physical activity than their White counterparts ( Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance
Sofiya Alhassan, Christine W. St. Laurent, and Sarah Burkart
prekindergarten programs; Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2017 ). Compared with their non-Hispanic White counterparts (63%), a higher percentage of African American (68%) children spend a significant portion of their day at preschool centers ( Federal Interagency Forum on Child and
Adewale L. Oyeyemi, James F. Sallis, Adetoyeje Y. Oyeyemi, Mariam M. Amin, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, and Benedicte Deforche
This study adapted the Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale (PANES) to the Nigerian context and assessed the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the Nigerian version (PANES-N).
A multidisciplinary panel of experts adapted the original PANES to reflect the built and social environment of Nigeria. The adapted PANES was subjected to cognitive testing and test retest reliability in a diverse sample of Nigerian adults (N = 132) from different neighborhood types. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) was used to assess test-retest reliability, and construct validity was investigated with Analysis of Covariance for differences in environmental attributes between neighborhoods.
Four of the 17 items on the original PANES were significantly modified, 3 were removed and 2 new items were incorporated into the final version of adapted PANES-N. Test-retest reliability was substantial to almost perfect (ICC = 0.62–1.00) for all items on the PANES-N, and residents of neighborhoods in the inner city reported higher residential density, land use mix and safety, but lower pedestrian facilities and aesthetics than did residents of government reserved area/new layout neighborhoods.
The PANES-N appears promising for assessing environmental perceptions related to physical activity in Nigeria, but further testing is required to assess its applicability across Africa.
March L. Krotee
The South African government’s socially based policy of segregation and discrimination, or “apartheid,” has caused tremendous external, as well as internal, pressures to reverse the government’s inhumane treatment of its repressed populace. Until recently none of the pressures have been more forceful than those evoked by the sporting world and the United Nations. Since 1960, these forces have served to isolate South Africa from most international sports competitions, including the Olympic Games. At one juncture, various leanings in apartheid policy seemed to point toward a tilt in attitudinal posture not only in regard to sport but to various related apartheid conduct. Recent events, however, have elucidated a continued dominant posture concerning South Africa’s all-encompassing socially repressive apartheid practice. It appears that, unless the South African government initiates swift and salient apartheid expiration, the perilous game they are playing may get out of hand.