The African American male student-athlete occupies one of the most peculiar positions in American society. While lauded for their sport performance, they are often viewed as problematic in the broader society. While their performance generates millions of dollars for universities and the NCAA, for most, their labor often produces comparatively little personal gain. While they are recruited as student-athletes, they soon realize that the demands of their athletic commitment renders them athlete-students. Many outside of sport would argue that this is a choice and an informed decision. But we argue much of this is a consequence of the mis-education of the African American student-athlete. We examine this phenomenon through the lens of Critical Race Theory to provide an alternative view of the issues faced by African American student-athletes and suggest an alternative pedagogy that might be investigated to meet their needs.
Louis Harrison Jr., Albert Y. Bimper Jr., Martin P. Smith, and Alvin D. Logan
Rebecca E. Lee, Scherezade K. Mama, Kristen P. McAlexander, Heather Adamus, and Ashley V. Medina
In the US, public housing developments are typically located in lower socioeconomic status neighborhoods that may have poorer quality street level conditions, placing residents in neighborhoods that are less supportive for physical activity (PA). This study investigated the relationship of detailed, objectively assessed street-level pedestrian features with self-reported and measured PA in African American public housing residents.
Every street segment (N = 2093) within an 800 m radius surrounding each housing development (N = 12) was systematically assessed using the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan (PEDS). Participants completed an interviewer administered International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) Short Form and wore a pedometer for 1 week.
Women reported significantly less vigorous (mean = 1955 vs. 2896 METs), moderate (mean = 733 vs. 1309 mets), walking (mean = 1080 vs. 1376 METs), and total (mean = 3768 vs. 5581 METs) PA on the IPAQ compared with men (all P <.05). Women took fewer pedometer steps per day (M = 3753 vs. 4589) compared with men, but this was not statistically significant. Regression analyses showed that for women, lower speed limits were associated with vigorous; higher street segment density was associated with more moderate PA; lower speed limits, fewer crossing aids, and more lanes were associated with more walking; and, fewer lanes was associated with more overall PA. For men, fewer sidewalk connections were associated with more moderate PA; lower speed limits were associated with more walking; and, lower speed limits was associated with more overall PA.
Neighborhood factors influence physical activity; in particular, lower speed limits appear most commonly linked with increased physical activity in both men and women.
Maria Kosma, David Buchanan, and Jan Hondzinski
, 2016b ). Moreover, disparities in levels of physical activity continue to exist. Based on the most recent National Health Interview Survey on all age groups ( U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS], Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2016b ), 43.6% of African Americans
Rebecca E. Hasson
al., 2008 ; Whitt-Glover et al., 2009 ; Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 2009 ). Self-reported physical activity levels indicate that African-American and Latino adolescents age 9–13 participate in less leisure-time physical activity than their White counterparts ( Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance
Sofiya Alhassan, Christine W. St. Laurent, and Sarah Burkart
prekindergarten programs; Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2017 ). Compared with their non-Hispanic White counterparts (63%), a higher percentage of African American (68%) children spend a significant portion of their day at preschool centers ( Federal Interagency Forum on Child and
Stacy Imagbe, Baofu Wang, Yang Liu, Jared Androzzi, Xiangli Gu, and Senlin Chen
units focused on sports, games, or fitness activities. The students, enrolled in six different classes, who self-reported their race as White or Black/African American were included as the participants for the study. The sample ( N = 335) consisted of 168 White and 167 Black students (165 boys, 162
Brian Tyo, Rebecca Spataro-Kearns, and David R. Bassett Jr.
African American women have higher rates of obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI; BMI ≥30 kg·m −2 ) ( Flegal, Kruszon-Moran, Carroll, Fryar, & Ogden, 2016 ; Ladabaum, Mannalithara, Myer, & Singh, 2014 ; Ogden, Carroll, Kit, & Flegal, 2014 ). For example, according to National Health and
Shaun M. Anderson and Matthew M. Martin
Comedian Chris Rock explained in a 2015 interview on Real Sports With Bryant Gumbel that Major League Baseball (MLB) lacks a relatability factor in the African American community. He stated that “Black people and baseball ain’t a good match anymore” ( Axisa, 2015 ). Furthermore, he explained that
Jenny Lind Withycombe
Stereotypes have the power to dynamically structure African American female athletes’ oppression (Buysse & Embser-Herbert, 2004; Kane, 1996), for example, by trivializing their athletic efforts (Douglas, 2002). The purpose of this paper was to examine how African American women athletes experience such stereotypes. Drawing from Collins (1990) and Crenshaw’s (1991) work on intersectionality, data were gathered from eight African American female athletes regarding their sport experiences. Qualitative analyses revealed two major themes: Gendered Stereotypes and Racial Stereotypes. Findings suggested that complex intersections of these stereotypes significantly impacted African American female athletes’ sport experiences. It is concluded that future research should explore in greater depth the sexist, racist, and classist incidences of African American female athletes’ experiences at all levels of sport participation.
Sanaz Nosrat, James W. Whitworth, Nicholas J. SantaBarbara, Shira I. Dunsiger, and Joseph T. Ciccolo
have a similar affective response to different resistance exercise intensities. Thus, we aimed to explore the acute psychological effects of resistance exercise intensity with sedentary Black/African American PLWH who experience depressive symptoms. Specifically, the aim of this study was to further