Experimental studies show intact implicit motor learning in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but the results for patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are inconclusive. This study tests implicit sequence learning in AD and PD patients, and healthy controls, using the classical Serial Reaction Time Task (SRTT), and a somewhat similar Pattern Learning Task (PLT), which involves stylus movements in different directions, and which allows detailed movement analysis. As expected, the time measures showed less implicit motor learning in the PD patients relative to the other groups in both tasks, but their error percentages increased when the sequence changed from a fixed to a random order, which is indicative of implicit learning. The AD patients showed a reversed pattern of results. Arguably, errors and time measures may reflect the involvement of separate processes, e.g., spatial and motor components, which could be differently affected in AD and PD.
Ilse A.D.A. van Tilborg and Wouter Hulstijn
Salma S.S. Hernández, Paula F. Sandreschi, Franciele C. da Silva, Beatriz A.V. Arancibia, Rudney da Silva, Paulo J.B. Gutierres and Alexandro Andrade
To identify and characterize the scientific literature on the effects of exercise on Alzheimer’s disease, research was conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Scopus. These MeSH terms—“exercise”, “motor activity”, “physical fitness”, “Alzheimer disease”, and its synonyms in English—were used in the initial search to locate studies published between 2003 and 2013. After reading the 12 final articles in their entirety, two additional articles, found by a manual search, were included. Of these, 13 had beneficial results of exercise in Alzheimer’s disease. Given the results discussed here, the exercise may be important for the improvement of functionality and performance of daily life activities, neuropsychiatric disturbances, cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory fitness, functional capacity components (flexibility, agility, balance, strength), and improvements in some cognitive components such as sustained attention, visual memory, and frontal cognitive function in patients with AD.
Renata Valle Pedroso, José Maria Cancela, Carlos Ayán, Angelica Miki Stein, Gilson Fuzaro, José Luiz Riani Costa, Francisco J. Fraga and Ruth Ferreira Santos-Galduróz
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by a gradual decline in numerous cognitive processes and altered cortical activity. 1 Indeed, the development of AD is usually accompanied by systematic changes in various cortical event-related potentials. In this population
Lauren T. Ptomey, Eric D. Vidoni, Esteban Montenegro-Montenegro, Michael A. Thompson, Joseph R. Sherman, Anna M. Gorczyca, Jerry L. Greene, Richard A. Washburn and Joseph E. Donnelly
The unprecedented growth of the older adults population has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), now affecting nearly one in nine adults aged 65 years and older ( Alzheimer’s Association, 2017 ). AD is a progressive, irreversible brain disease characterized by
Renata V. Pedroso, Carlos Ayán, Francisco J. Fraga, Thays M.V. da Silva, José M. Cancela and Ruth F. Santos-Galduròz
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative process in which brain cells are destroyed, causing a loss of cognitive functions, physical fitness, and functional activities ( Nelson & Tabet, 2015 ). Its high prevalence ( Alzheimer’s Disease International, 2015 ), together with the
Amber Watts, Mauricio Garnier-Villarreal and Paul Gardiner
factors for cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Glycemic control and insulin sensitivity are highly modifiable through changes in activity and sitting ( Mikus et al., 2012 ) and are inexorably linked to AD and cognitive decline ( Luchsinger, 2012 ; Yaffe et al., 2004 ). Individuals with mild
Juliana Hotta Ansai, Larissa Pires de Andrade, Paulo Giusti Rossi, Theresa Helissa Nakagawa, Francisco Assis Carvalho Vale and José Rubens Rebelatto
Cognitive decline is the primary clinical marker of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but some studies reported deficits in mobility situations, even in early stages of cognitive impairment ( Ansai et al., 2017 ; Bourke, Duncan, & Nimmosmith, 1996 ; Olivier, Cuisinier
Kevan H. Namazi, Paulletta B. Gwinnup and Carol A. Zadorozny
The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) develop and assess the suitability of a program of physical activity for an institutionalized population with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and (b) evaluate the exercise/movement program’s impact on behavior of patients with AD. Twenty-two AD patients participated in a 40-min exercise/movement program for 28 days. The results showed that the program reduced the agitated behaviors of patients with AD by more than half (χ2 = 101, df = 1, P < .0001; Cramer’s V = .23). The study confirmed that the exercise/movement program was both feasible and desirable for patients with AD, and that it reduced some of the adverse behaviors of the patients.
Casper de Boer, Johannes van der Steen, Francesco Mattace-Raso, Agnita J.W. Boon and Johan J.M. Pel
The early stages of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) involve deterioration of specific (visuo)motor functions. The aim of the current study was to investigate differences in visuomotor behavior between age-matched groups of 17 patients with AD, 17 patients with PD, and 20 healthy control subjects across three eye-hand-coordination tasks of different cognitive complexity. In two of three tasks, timing and execution parameters of eyes and hand significantly differed between groups. Timing and execution parameters of the eyes and hands could potentially give a quantitative description of disease specific deficits in the spatial and temporal domains and may serve as a tool to monitor disease progression in AD and PD populations.
Paul D. Loprinzi
We have a limited understanding of the physical activity (PA) and sedentary levels among individuals at risk and not at risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which was the purpose of this study.
Data from the 2003–2004 NHANES were used, from which 3015 participants were evaluated with 416 indicating a family history of AD. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were assessed via accelerometry with individuals at risk for AD self-reporting a family history of AD.
For the entire sample, those at risk for AD engaged in more sedentary behavior than those not at risk (494.9 vs. 477.9 min/day, P = .03, respectively). Similarly, those at risk for AD engaged in less total MVPA than those not at risk (22.4 vs. 24.3 min/day, P = .05, respectively). Results were also significant for various subgroups at risk for AD.
Despite the beneficial effects of PA in preventing AD and prolonging the survival of AD, adults at risk for AD tend to engage in more sedentary behavior and less PA than those not at risk for AD. This finding even persisted among minorities (Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks) who are already at an increased risk of developing AD.