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Younghan Cho, Charles Leary and Steven J. Jackson

Asia’s sports-mediascapes are increasingly globalized and regionalized, as are the roles played specifically by global sports in the processes of reconstituting national imaginaries among local populations as they undergo the larger experience of globalization. As such, the thesis of “glocalization” developed by Roland Robertson informs the essays in this special issue that tackle recent trends in sports culture in Asian localities, engaged in a global arena. As Asian locales host mega sporting events and new mediscapes for the glocal sports industry, glocal sports fan, and the glocal athlete, the essays in this special issue propose crucial concerns for the discipline of sports studies.

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Munira Abdulwasi, Meena Bhardwaj, Yuka Nakamura, Maha Zawi, Jennifer Price, Paula Harvey and Ananya Tina Banerjee

Women of South Asian origin make up one of the largest visible minority groups in Canada. 1 , 2 The term South Asian refers to migrants and their descendants from India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, or Sri Lanka. 2 In 2006, 1.26 million people in Canada reported South Asian heritage. 2 The South Asian

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Michael Silk and Andrew Manley

Within this paper we “hold together” an amalgam of intensive and extensive glocalization and the simultaneous reinscription of the importance of the global growth rationalities to aid understandings of contemporary Pacific Asian sporting spectacles. Through a series of four vignettes, we point to the place of sport within intense transformations within urban conglomerations in Pacific Asia. In so doing, we point to three central, and interrelated, problematics that appear endemic to Pacific Asian mega-events; raising questions over whose histories, whose representations and which peoples matter to, and for, the Pacific Asian sporting spectacle. Conclusions are centered on attuning our scholarly directions toward the structural inequalities embedded within these processes and transformations.

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Richard Giulianotti and Roland Robertson

This paper develops our prior work to examine how glocalization may be applied to examine Asian sport. We begin by discussing the different usages of glocalization in social science, and the role of Asian scholars in developing and applying the term. We set out our sociocultural understanding of glocalization, notably drawing on Robertson’s work and our subsequent conception of the “duality of glocality”. We examine critically the arguments of Ritzer and Connell on glocalization and globalization more generally. We consider in detail how the study of glocalization processes in Asia may be most fruitfully developed with reference to four fields of research inquiry. We conclude by discussing the connection of glocalization theory to debates on localism and localization, civilizations, and multiple modernities.

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Timothy J. Bungum, Merrill Landers, Maria Azzarelli and Sheniz Moonie

Background:

Little is known about correlates of physical activity of Asian and Asian-Pacific Islander Americans (AAPI). Knowledge of these correlates could be useful in promoting physical activity. Purpose: to identify demographic and environmental correlates of physical activity among AAPI.

Methods:

Participants resided in the Las Vegas, Nevada area, and completed a 52-item telephone administered questionnaire that assessed physical activity behavior, environmental supports for physical activity and demographic factors. Environmental factors included the presence of neighborhood sidewalks, park availability, and nearby grocery stores were combined to create the variable “environmental physical activity supports” (EPAS). Neighborhood crime, pleasantness of the neighborhood for walking, and the presence of loose dogs combined to form “neighborhood safety.” Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of physical activity. Potential predictors included age, gender, BMI, employment, educational attainment, neighborhood safety, and EPAS.

Results:

263 respondents completed the survey. With the exception of living near a grocery store, respondents reported residing in neighborhoods that are generally supportive of physical activity. However, EPAS was the sole significant predictor of physical activity behavior (OR = 1.52, CI = 1.06–2.17). Age and educational attainment unexpectedly failed to predict physical activity.

Conclusions:

Supportive physical activity environments associate with physical activity behavior among AAPI.

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Tessa M. Pollard and Cornelia Guell

Background:

We assessed the quality of data on physical activity obtained by recall from Muslim women of South Asian origin, and the feasibility of using accelerometer-based physical activity monitors to provide more objective measures of physical activity in this group.

Methods:

In this largely qualitative study, 22 British Pakistani women were asked to wear accelerometers (the GT1M Actigraph and/or the Sensewear Armband) for 4 days, provided 2 24-hour recalls of activities, and were interviewed about their experiences with the monitors.

Results:

Women reported spending most of their time in housework and childcare, activities which generated the majority of recorded bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity. However, women had difficulty in recalling the timing, and assessing the intensity, of these usually unstructured activities. A significant minority of accelerometer datasets were incomplete and some women reported either forgetting to wear the acceler-ometer or finding it intrusive.

Conclusions:

Questionnaires are unlikely to provide an accurate assessment of physical activity in this group of women. This suggests that accelerometer data will be preferable. However, collecting sufficient data for large-scale studies using activity monitors in this population will be challenging.

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Michael J. Duncan, Lorayne Woodfield, Yahya Al-Nakeeb and Alan M. Nevill

The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity levels between white and South Asian children in the UK. The data were obtained from 606, 11–14 year old schoolchildren (397 white; 209 Asian). Physical activity was assessed using the ‘four by one day’ recall questionnaire from which the time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity was calculated. Boys were significantly more active than girls (p = .0001), and white children reported significantly greater physical activity than south Asian children (p = .001). Mean ± SD of time spent in moderate and vigorous activity was 90.2 ± 65.4 mins and 68.2 ± 49.3 mins for white and south Asian children and 103.5 ± 63.4 mins and 65.6 ± 53.5 mins for boys and girls respectively. These findings indicate that south Asian children are significantly less active than their white peers and there may be a need for specific interventions to target South Asian children particularly.

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Kiruthika Rathanaswami, Enrique Garcia Bengoechea and Paula Louise Bush

The aim of this study was to understand the physical activity (PA) experiences of South Asian women employees and their perceptions of new immigrant South Asian women in regards to barriers and facilitators to participation. This was examined using an interpretive description approach where similarities and differences between South Asian Women’s Centre employees and their perception of new South Asian immigrants were explored. Eight South Asian women employees (Mean age = 45.57 years) working at a South Asian Women’s Centre in Canada participated in this study. Five South Asian women employees participated in a focus group, three in an individual interview and one participant from the focus group took part in a follow-up interview to better understand their PA experiences. Barriers found included: family responsibilities, upbringing, feeling guilty, immediate living environment, clothing, cost, and location of activity. PA facilitators found included: help at home, cultural sports events, group support, female only programs, design of PA facilities, health and self-image benefits, providing PA for children at the same time as adults and collaborations. The main differences found between South Asian Women’s Centre employees and their clients concerned time, language and their partners. For this population of women, programs need to be affordable, close to home, female only and allow their own choice of clothing. The results suggest the importance for those working with South Asian women to take into consideration the many factors between the individual and the environment that may inhibit or facilitate PA behavior change in this population.

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Bo Li, Sarah Stokowski, Stephen W. Dittmore and Olan K. M. Scott

Informed by framing theory, the study strove to investigate nationalism by examining Chinese newspaper coverage of the 2014 Incheon Asian Games. Through document and textual analysis of 324 articles from 5 mainstream newspapers, the study indicated that Chinese newspapers always portrayed Chinese athletes as “dominating the competition” and “lacking opponents in Asia” while portraying other countries’ athletes as “less competitive” and not at the “level of Chinese athletes.” The results also suggested that Chinese newspapers tried to positively spin the story when reporting the failure of Chinese athletes at the Asian Games. However, to increase readership and enhance public awareness of the Asian Games,Chinese newspapers also attempted to created rivalries between Chinese athletes and competing nations and, at times, emphasized national failures.

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Elizabeth A. Kelley, Namratha R. Kandula, Alka M. Kanaya and Irene H. Yen

Background:

The neighborhood built environment can have a strong influence on physical activity levels, particularly walking for transport. In examining racial/ethnic differences in physical activity, one important and understudied group is South Asians. This study aims to describe the association between neighborhood walkability and walking for transport among South Asian men and women in the United States in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) Study.

Methods:

A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 using the baseline dataset of the MASALA study (N = 906). Mean age was 55 years old and 54% of the sample was male. Weekly minutes spent walking for transport was assessed using a questionnaire adapted from the Cross-Cultural Activity Participation Study. Neighborhood walkability was measured using Walk Score, a composite index of walkability.

Results:

After adjusting for covariates, with each 10-point increase in Walk Score, South Asian American men engaged in 13 additional minutes per week of walking for transport (P = .008). No association was observed between walkability and walking for transport in South Asian American women.

Conclusions:

Results provide new evidence for how the effects of environmental influences on walking for transport may vary between South Asian men and women.