The 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games was a sporting and financial success, yet an international image disaster. Atlanta’s goal to shine on a global stage was met with harsh criticism and stereotypical portrayals by media nationally and around the world. What happened? Using a multimethod approach, including content analyses of print and broadcast media in 27 countries, review of institutional reports, and observation of media operations during the Games, this study identifies four key factors largely responsible for Atlanta’s image disaster as Olympic host. In doing so, it provides an exemplar case study of the complex challenges faced by hosts of global media events in their efforts to garner favorable international media coverage. A secondary purpose of this case study is to summarize the preparations, process, and innovations related to media use in the Atlanta Games. Such an account of Atlanta 1996 is missing in the current Olympics literature.
The underrepresentation of women in the Paralympics movement warrants attention as the world prepares for Atlanta 1996, when Paralympics (conducted after the Summer Olympics) will attract approximately 3,500 athletes with physical disability or visual impairment from 102 countries. Barriers that confront women with disability, the Paralympic movement, and adapted physical activity as a profession and scholarly discipline that stresses advocacy and attitude theories are presented. Two theories (reasoned action and contact) that have been tested in various contexts are woven together as an approach particularly applicable to women in sport and feminists who care about equal access to opportunity for all women. Women with disability are a social minority that is both ignored and oppressed. Sport and feminist theory and action should include disability along with gender, race/ethnicity, class, and age as concerns and issues.
Claudio M. Rocha
small sample size, without losing representativeness ( Ary et al., 2018 ). In a trend study, Mihalik and Simonetta ( 1999 ) investigated support and other attitudes of Georgia residents toward Atlanta 1996, over a period of 4 years before the Games. They found small decreases in residents’ support and
Ben T. Stephenson, Sven P. Hoekstra, Keith Tolfrey, and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey
the ITU and race organizing committees for their endorsement and operational support. References 1. Webborn ADJ . Heat-related problems for the Paralympic Games, Atlanta 1996 . Br J Ther Rehabil . 1996 ; 3 ( 8 ): 429 – 436 . doi:10.12968/bjtr.1918.104.22.16888 10.12968/bjtr.1922.214.171.12488 2. Griggs