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Chunxiao Li, Justin A. Haegele, Ho Lun Au, and Kevin Wai Keung Kam

. Intrapersonal mindfulness −.03 .11 −.06 −.00 .10 .17* .19* .40** .42** — 11. Interpersonal mindfulness −.13 −.03 .04 −.10 −.05 .17* .17* .39** .35** .37** Note. n  = 151. Contact with ADHD = contact experiences with students with ADHD; ADHD = attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. * p  < .05. ** p  < .01

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Lauren E. Bullard, Colt A. Coffman, Jacob J.M. Kay, Jeffrey P. Holloway, Robert D. Moore, and Matthew B. Pontifex

et al., 2014 ; Zemek et al., 2016 ) that may complicate the course of recovery. However, an emerging body of evidence suggests that preexisting neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)—a disorder characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of

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Timothy Martinson, Stephen A. Butterfield, Craig A. Mason, Shihfen Tu, Robert A. Lehnhard, and Christopher J. Nightingale

systematically adjust to increased physiological demand. The PACER has been shown to be valid in predicting aerobic capacity in adolescents ( 7 , 20 ). Among adolescents, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most frequently diagnosed psychiatric disorders. Approximately 5% of all school

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William J. Harvey and Greg Reid

The purpose of this paper is to present a critical analysis of the research methods in adapted physical activity studies about children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The strengths and weaknesses of various research methods are discussed by (a) three main types of research questions, (b) identification and description of research participants, (c) reliability and validity of assessment instruments, (d) data collection procedures, and (e) quantitative and qualitative methods of data analysis. Strategies to improve research are embedded in each of the five main categories. It is concluded that substantial methodological inconsistencies exist in the current ADHD physical activity literature base. Future research would be strengthened by incorporating recommended suggestions.

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Jared D. Ramer, María E. Santiago-Rodríguez, Catherine L. Davis, David X. Marquez, Stacy L. Frazier, and Eduardo E. Bustamante

Purpose Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, as a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity that interferes with functioning and development ( 2 ). In 2011, the parent

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Homan Lee, Janice Causgrove Dunn, and Nicholas L. Holt

The purpose of this study was to explore youth sport experiences of individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were 6 males (mean age = 22.7 yr) with ADHD who had played 3 or more seasons in team sports during adolescence. Following interpretive phenomenological analysis methodology, each participant completed 2 semistructured interviews. Findings showed that symptoms of ADHD hampered participants’ experiences and led to negative interpersonal and performance-related consequences. On the other hand, participants reported social and stress/energy-release benefits arising from their experiences in sport. Their experiences were therefore complex, and some findings relating to social interactions appeared contradictory (e.g., negative interpersonal experiences vs. social benefits). Supportive coaches, understanding teammates, and personal coping strategies were key factors that enabled participants to realize benefits and, to some degree, mitigate negative consequences associated with their participation in sport.

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Christiane Lange-Küttner and Ridhi Kochhar

-Mashadi, Sudirman, Khalid, & Lange-Küttner, 2015 ). The Current Study We investigated whether the CRT may be a good screening instrument for children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Both ASD and ADHD are neurodevelopmental disorders that are

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Lucy Barnard-Brak, Tonya Davis, Tracey Sulak, and Victor Brak

Objective:

The purpose of the current study was to examine the association between structured physical activity, specifically physical education, and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Physical activity may be associated with lower levels of symptoms of ADHD and this rationale provided the impetus for the current study.

Methods:

A community-based, nationally representative sample of children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten cohort (ECLS-K) was used. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the association of physical activity with symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Two random subsamples were drawn for the purposes of cross-validation of our model. Statistics reflecting model ft are reported.

Results:

With a standardized path coefficient value of –.23, findings from the current study indicate a significant, inverse association between physical education, as a structured form of physical activity, with the symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children.

Conclusions:

Using a community-based, nationally representative sample of children aged 5 to 7 years old from the United States, the results of the current study suggest that physical education, as a structured form of physical activity, may be considered as associated with lower levels of symptoms of ADHD across time.

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William J. Harvey and Greg Reid

The purpose of this study was to describe the fundamental gross motor skills and fitness conditions of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nineteen children, ages 7 to 12, participated. Gross motor performance was measured by the Test of Gross Motor Development (Ulrich, 1985). Fitness variables were measured by selected items from the Canada Fitness Survey (Fitness Canada, 1985), the CAHPER Fitness-Performance II Test (CAHPER, 1980), and the 20 m Shuttle Run Test (Leger, Lambert, Goulet, Rowan, & Dinelle, 1984). Percentile scores provided individual and group profiles of performance. It was concluded that fundamental gross motor performance and physical fitness of children with ADHD are substantially below average.

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William J. Harvey and Greg Reid

The purpose of this study was to present a comprehensive review of research on the movement performance and physical fitness of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and offer research recommendations. Movement behaviors of children with ADHD were described on the basis of 49 empirical studies published between 1949 and 2002. Major results indicated that (a) children with ADHD are at risk for movement skill difficulties, (b) children with ADHD are at risk for poor levels of physical fitness, (c) comorbidity may exist between ADHD and developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and (d) few interventions have focused on movement performance and physical fitness of children with ADHD. Numerous reference citations for seminal review articles on ADHD are provided so that potential researchers or program planners might enter the vast ADHD literature with some ease.