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Olan K.M. Scott, Bo (Norman) Li, and Stephen Mighton

Australia brands itself as having a love of sport, with an interest in sport being considered part of “being Australian” ( Adair & Vamplew, 1997 ). In terms of population, Australia consists of around 25 million citizens, who exhibit a wide range of interests. However, interest in the Olympic Games

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Lena Babaeer, Michalis Stylianou, and Sjaan R. Gomersall

Globally, the number of students in higher education has more than doubled from 100 million in 2000 to 207 million in 2014. 1 Similarly, in Australia, higher education enrollment rates have significantly increased in the past few years. Specifically, over 1.5 million students were enrolled in

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Christine Hanley, Mitch J. Duncan, and W. Kerry Mummery

Background:

Population surveys are frequently used to assess prevalence, correlates and health benefits of physical activity. However, nonsampling errors, such as question order effects, in surveys may lead to imprecision in self reported physical activity. This study examined the impact of modified question order in a commonly used physical activity questionnaire on the prevalence of sufficient physical activity.

Methods:

Data were obtained from a telephone survey of adults living in Queensland, Australia. A total of 1243 adults participated in the computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) survey conducted in July 2008 which included the Active Australia Questionnaire (AAQ) presented in traditional or modified order. Binary logistic regression analyses was used to examine relationships between question order and physical activity outcomes.

Results:

Significant relationships were found between question order and sufficient activity, recreational walking, moderate activity, vigorous activity, and total activity. Respondents who received the AAQ in modified order were more likely to be categorized as sufficiently active (OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.01−1.60).

Conclusions:

This study highlights the importance of question order on estimates of self reported physical activity. This study has shown that changes in question order can lead to an increase in the proportion of participants classified as sufficiently active.

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Bonnie Field, Tom Cochrane, Rachel Davey, and Yohannes Kinfu

The aim of this study was to identify determinants of walking and whether walking maintained mobility among women as they transition from their mid-70s to their late 80s. We used 12 years of follow-up data (baseline 1999) from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (n = 10,322). Fifteen determinants of walking were included in the analysis and three indicators of mobility. Longitudinal data analyses techniques were employed. Thirteen of the 15 determinants were significant predictors of walking. Women in their mid-70s who walked up to 1 hr per week were less likely to experience loss of mobility in very old age, including reduced likelihood of using a mobility aid. Hence, older women who do no walking should be encouraged to walk to maintain their mobility and their independence as they age, particularly women in their 70s and 80s who smoke, are overweight, have arthritis, or who have had a recent fall.

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Jonathan Kingsley, Nyssa Hadgraft, Neville Owen, Takemi Sugiyama, David W. Dunstan, and Manoj Chandrabose

study were twofold: first, to examine associations of time spent in vigorous-intensity gardening activities with risk markers of cardiometabolic health using data collected from a large nationwide cohort of Australian middle-aged and older adults; and, second, to examine whether these associations are

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Katrina M. Moss, Annette J. Dobson, Kimberley L. Edwards, Kylie D. Hesketh, Yung-Ting Chang, and Gita D. Mishra

obesity. 2 , 4 , 5 Yet PA and fitness have declined over recent decades, with children now less fit than their parents were at the same age. 6 Worldwide, the majority of children do not complete the recommended amount of PA, 2 , 3 , 7 , 8 and in Australia, less than 20% of 5- to 17-year-old children

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Emily Stadder and Michael L. Naraine

, William Hill, and Ladbrokes in the United Kingdom; Sportsbet, BetEasy, and TAB in Australia; and Pointsbet in the United States. With an estimated global value of $104.41 billion U.S., the global sports-betting market is big business ( Zion Market Research, 2018 ). In Australia alone, the total sports

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James Bingaman

Australian football—also known as Australian Rules football, Aussie Rules, or “footy”—is the second oldest form of football in the world ( Blainey, 2003 ) and is largely considered the national sport of Australia ( Richardson, 2011 ). Although Australian football has been a late-night staple of

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Adrienne Brown and Mohammad Siahpush

Background:

Regular physical activity reduces the risk of a number of diseases, prevents obesity, and has positive psychological effects. Approximately one-third of the Australian population has been reported as totally sedentary. We investigated socioeconomic predictors of being sedentary in a nationally representative sample of Australian adults.

Methods:

We analyzed data from 8643 females and 7600 males who responded to the 2001 National Health Survey. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association of being sedentary with a range of socioeconomic measures.

Results:

Adjusting for demographics, body-mass index, and smoking, we found that low socioeconomic status, indicated by low education level, blue-collar occupation, low income and area social disadvantage, increased the probability that people were sedentary.

Conclusions:

This research highlights that targeting people from lower socioeconomic backgrounds with strategies to increase participation in physical activity may reduce morbidity and mortality associated with being sedentary.

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Murray G. Phillips and Gary Osmond

Indigenous sportspeople—male and female—are prominent Australian identities. Many of these people have national profiles in all of Australia’s football codes and are successful athletes on the international stage at the Olympic and Paralympic Games, as well as competing at the highest level in