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Christine Hanley, Mitch J. Duncan and W. Kerry Mummery

Background:

Population surveys are frequently used to assess prevalence, correlates and health benefits of physical activity. However, nonsampling errors, such as question order effects, in surveys may lead to imprecision in self reported physical activity. This study examined the impact of modified question order in a commonly used physical activity questionnaire on the prevalence of sufficient physical activity.

Methods:

Data were obtained from a telephone survey of adults living in Queensland, Australia. A total of 1243 adults participated in the computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) survey conducted in July 2008 which included the Active Australia Questionnaire (AAQ) presented in traditional or modified order. Binary logistic regression analyses was used to examine relationships between question order and physical activity outcomes.

Results:

Significant relationships were found between question order and sufficient activity, recreational walking, moderate activity, vigorous activity, and total activity. Respondents who received the AAQ in modified order were more likely to be categorized as sufficiently active (OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.01−1.60).

Conclusions:

This study highlights the importance of question order on estimates of self reported physical activity. This study has shown that changes in question order can lead to an increase in the proportion of participants classified as sufficiently active.

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Bonnie Field, Tom Cochrane, Rachel Davey and Yohannes Kinfu

The aim of this study was to identify determinants of walking and whether walking maintained mobility among women as they transition from their mid-70s to their late 80s. We used 12 years of follow-up data (baseline 1999) from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (n = 10,322). Fifteen determinants of walking were included in the analysis and three indicators of mobility. Longitudinal data analyses techniques were employed. Thirteen of the 15 determinants were significant predictors of walking. Women in their mid-70s who walked up to 1 hr per week were less likely to experience loss of mobility in very old age, including reduced likelihood of using a mobility aid. Hence, older women who do no walking should be encouraged to walk to maintain their mobility and their independence as they age, particularly women in their 70s and 80s who smoke, are overweight, have arthritis, or who have had a recent fall.

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Katrina M. Moss, Annette J. Dobson, Kimberley L. Edwards, Kylie D. Hesketh, Yung-Ting Chang and Gita D. Mishra

obesity. 2 , 4 , 5 Yet PA and fitness have declined over recent decades, with children now less fit than their parents were at the same age. 6 Worldwide, the majority of children do not complete the recommended amount of PA, 2 , 3 , 7 , 8 and in Australia, less than 20% of 5- to 17-year-old children

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Murray G. Phillips and Gary Osmond

Indigenous sportspeople—male and female—are prominent Australian identities. Many of these people have national profiles in all of Australia’s football codes and are successful athletes on the international stage at the Olympic and Paralympic Games, as well as competing at the highest level in

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David L. Carey, Justin Crow, Kok-Leong Ong, Peter Blanch, Meg E. Morris, Ben J. Dascombe and Kay M. Crossley

Australian football. 3 Currently, physical-preparation staff are tasked with balancing the training guidelines associated with injury-risk reduction and performance improvement when prescribing training loads. Mathematical optimization is a method that may help in this process, particularly as more data on

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Adrienne Brown and Mohammad Siahpush

Background:

Regular physical activity reduces the risk of a number of diseases, prevents obesity, and has positive psychological effects. Approximately one-third of the Australian population has been reported as totally sedentary. We investigated socioeconomic predictors of being sedentary in a nationally representative sample of Australian adults.

Methods:

We analyzed data from 8643 females and 7600 males who responded to the 2001 National Health Survey. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association of being sedentary with a range of socioeconomic measures.

Results:

Adjusting for demographics, body-mass index, and smoking, we found that low socioeconomic status, indicated by low education level, blue-collar occupation, low income and area social disadvantage, increased the probability that people were sedentary.

Conclusions:

This research highlights that targeting people from lower socioeconomic backgrounds with strategies to increase participation in physical activity may reduce morbidity and mortality associated with being sedentary.

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Ester Cerin, Evie Leslie, Takemi Sugiyama and Neville Owen

Background:

Perceived barriers are modifiable correlates of participation in physical activity. Associations of specific perceived barriers with participation in and level of walking for recreation, and other leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) were examined. Personal, social, and environmental factors associated with these perceived barriers were then examined.

Methods:

From 2003 to 2004, 2 surveys collected data on recreational walking and other LTPA, perceived barriers to participation, and personal, social, and environmental attributes, from 2194 Australian adults. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models examined associations of perceived barriers with walking and other LTPA. Generalized linear models identified the correlates of these perceived barriers.

Results:

The perceived barriers of lack of motivation and time were associated with level of LTPA, while lack of motivation, poor health, and lack of facilities were associated with the odds of non-participation in LTPA. Personal, social, and environmental factors independently contributed to variations in perceived barriers.

Conclusions:

Level and likelihood of participation in LTPA are associated with different perceived barriers. Perceived barriers are a function of both nonmodifiable personal factors and potentially modifiable personal, social, and environmental factors. These findings suggest that the provision of relevant environmental opportunities and social support may effectively reduce perceived barriers to LTPA.

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Rebecca Reynolds, Santhya and David Menzies

the United States, which unites “the strengths of public, private, and industry efforts into collaborative partnerships that inspire and empower all Americans to lead more physically active lifestyles.” 5 In Australia, Active Australia was a national physical activity coalition in the 1990s. 6 More

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Gina L. Trakman, Adrienne Forsyth, Kane Middleton, Russell Hoye, Sarah Jenner, Stephen Keenan and Regina Belski

In 2013–2014, nearly five million Australians aged 15 years and older stated that they played an organized sport ( Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2015 ). Australian Football (AF) is the third most popular sport played in Australia ( Australian Sports Commission, 2016 ); and the elite, national

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Callum J. McCaskie, Warren B. Young, Brendan B. Fahrner and Marc Sim

Australian football (AF) is a field-based team sport requiring various elements of physical fitness. 1 – 3 A typical match lasts around 120 minutes, played over 4 quarters 4 where players cover around 11 to 14 km. 5 To compete at this level, professional AF players undertake rigorous preseason