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Alice M. Buchanan, Benjamin Miedema and Georgia C. Frey

addressing either PA as a health behavior or the factors that influence PA in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To date, we found only one study that specifically reported PA levels in a sample of adults with ASD ( Eaves & Ho, 2008 ). Eaves and Ho conducted a longitudinal study on outcomes in

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Layne Case and Joonkoo Yun

The most recent prevalence rates suggest that one in 59 children are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; Baio, 2018 ), a neurodevelopmental disability with common diagnostic features, such as the presence of restrictive and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, and

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Breanna E. Studenka and Kodey Myers

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often exhibit cognitive, social, and behavioral impairment ( DSM-5 ; American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ). In addition to this, individuals with ASD do not appear to understand the intentions of others as well as their typically developing (TD

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Yumeng Li, Melissa A. Mache and Teri A. Todd

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that affect about 2.5% of children in general. 1 – 3 Individuals with ASD often demonstrate impaired abilities for communication and interaction with others, restricted interest, and repetitive patterns of behavior. 4

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Chunxiao Li, Ngai Kiu Wong, Raymond K.W. Sum and Chung Wah Yu

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder presenting as impaired social interaction and restricted and repetitive behaviors ( American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ). In Hong Kong, about 1.2% of students in mainstream primary schools are diagnosed with mild-to-moderate ASD

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Shannon Titus Dieringer, David L. Porretta and Diane Sainato

The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of music (music with lyrics versus music with lyrics plus instruction) relative to on-task behaviors in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in a gross motor setting. Five preschool children (4 boys, 1 girl) diagnosed with ASD served as participants. A multiple baseline across participants in conjunction with an alternating-treatment design was used. For all participants, music with lyrics plus instruction increased on-task behaviors to a greater extent than did music with lyrics. The results of our study provide a better understanding of the role of music with regard to the behaviors of young children with ASD.

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Chien-Yu Pan

This study compared moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and students without disabilities during inclusive physical education and recess. Students (7–12 years) wore a uniaxial accelerometer in school for 5 consecutive school days. Results indicated a significant difference between settings, F(1,46) = 15.94,p < .01, partial eta2 = 0.26, observed power = 0.97. Students with and without ASD spent a higher proportion of time in MVPA during physical education than during recess, relative to the amount of time spent in those settings. In addition, structured physical education offers opportunities to increase students’ MVPA engagement.

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Iva Obrusnikova and Suzanna R. Dillon

As the first step of an instrument development, teaching challenges that occur when students with autism spectrum disorders are educated in general physical education were elicited using Goldfried and D’Zurilla’s (1969) behavioral-analytic model. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 43 certified physical educators (29 women and 14 men) using a demographic questionnaire and an elicitation questionnaire. Participants listed 225 teaching challenges, 46% related to cooperative, 31% to competitive, and 24% to individualistic learning situations. Teaching challenges were categorized into nine themes: inattentive and hyperactive behaviors, social impairment, emotional regulation difficulties, difficulties understanding and performing tasks, narrow focus and inflexible adherence to routines and structure, isolation by classmates, negative effects on classmates’ learning, and need for support.

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Jennifer A. Beamer and Joonkoo Yun

With an increase in the presence of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the general physical education (GPE) classroom, understanding the current state of GPE teachers’ beliefs and behaviors for including these students is warranted. The current study aimed to examine the beliefs and self-reported behaviors of GPE teachers’ inclusion of students with ASD. In addition, the study examined potential factors affecting their inclusion behaviors. Using a national stratified random sample, participants were 142 current GPE teachers who submitted surveys anonymously online. Results from a regression analysis indicate that teachers’ experience, graduate coursework in adapted physical education (APE), and perceptions of strength in undergraduate training in APE significantly predicted their self-reported behavior for including students with ASD. Although the participant response rate is considerably low, this study provides some support toward the importance of teacher education programs for inclusion training.

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Iva Obrusnikova and Dannielle L. Miccinello

The study assessed parental perceptions of the benefits of physical activity (PA) and the factors that influence participation of children with autism spectrum disorders in PA after school. Data were collected from 103 parents using an online open-ended questionnaire and focus-group interviews. Data were analyzed using a socioecological model. Parents provided 225 responses that were coded as advantages, 106 as disadvantages, 225 as facilitators, and 250 as barriers of PA. The most frequently reported advantages were physical, followed by psychosocial, and cognitive. Disadvantages were psychosocial and physical. The most frequently reported barriers were intrapersonal, followed by interpersonal, physical, community, and institutional. Facilitators were intrapersonal, followed by physical, interpersonal, community, and institutional. Public policy factors were elicited in the interviews.