Published 4 decades ago, “Basking in Reflected Glory: Three (Football) Field Studies” (Cialdini et al., 1976) is the most influential study of sport consumer behavior. This article features re-creations of Studies 1 and 2, exactly 40 years after the original publication. The results of Study 1 were reproduced, with participants more than twice as likely to wear school-affiliated apparel after wins and 55% less likely after losses. The study also extends the BIRGing literature in its investigation of the influence of gender and the effect’s salience over time. Study 2’s results were not reproduced. However, study participants were significantly more likely to use first-person plural pronouns, providing further empirical evidence of BIRGing behaviors. This article makes a novel contribution to the sport consumer behavior literature by advancing the study of one of the field’s most foundational theories and serving as an impetus for future investigations of BIRGing motivations.
Jonathan A. Jensen, Brian A. Turner, Jeffrey James, Chad McEvoy, Chad Seifried, Elizabeth Delia, T. Christopher Greenwell, Stephen Ross and Patrick Walsh
John S.W. Spinda
This study explored first-, second-, and third-person effects related to the outcome of televised National Football League (NFL) games among an online sample of NFL fans (N = 646). Overall findings indicated that first-person and second-person perceptual biases were projected toward comparison groups that were labeled as fans of other NFL teams or as the average person. In addition, support was found for both first and second-person behavioral effects in the form of postgame Basking In Reflected Glory (BIRGing) and Cutting Off Reflected Failure (CORFing) behaviors. However, the strength of NFL fans’ team identification was a more robust predictor of these effects than NFL fans self-reported BIRGing/CORFing behaviors. These findings support the hypothesis that self-enhancement processes (i.e., BIRGing/CORFing) are usurped by self-categorization processes when a social identity is made salient (i.e., NFL team identification). Areas of future research and limitations are also addressed.
Joerg Koenigstorfer, Andrea Groeppel-Klein and Marco Schmitt
This article reports results from a longitudinal field study examining the psychological processes underlying soccer fans’ loyalty toward their clubs and fans’ emotional states depending on the seasonal outcome of the clubs. We found that fans’ perceptions of three relationship strength indicators—satisfaction, self-connection, and intimate commitment—and the levels of basking in reflected glory (BIRGing) did not decrease and cutting off reflected failure (CORFing) did not increase when soccer clubs of the German Bundesliga were relegated to a lower division. The levels of BIRGing, self-connection, and intimate commitment in fact increased after this event, producing intense positive, negative, and mixed emotions in fans. The results support the notion that fandom is about expressing identity and attitude to life, sharing intimate details with the club, and standing by it, in both good and bad times. Thus fans and their clubs are strongly bound to each other.
Robert Madrigal and Johnny Chen
Fans’ causal attributions for a game outcome refer to their assessments of the underlying reasons for why things turned out as they did. We investigate the extent to which team identification moderates fans’ attributional responses to a game outcome so as to produce a self-serving bias that favors the preferred team. Also explored is the ability of team identification to mediate the effect of attributions on the summary judgments of basking in reflected glory (BIRG) and satisfaction with the team’s performance. Consistent with a self-serving bias, we found that highly identified fans were more likely to attribute a winning effort to stable and internal causes than were lowly identified fans. Moreover, the extremity of response between winners and losers was greater among highly identified fans than lowly identified fans. Team identification was also found to mediate the influence of (a) stability on BIRGing and (b) internal control on BIRGing. No such mediation effects were observed in the case of satisfaction. Managerial implications are discussed.
Michelle Harrolle, Galen Trail, Ariel Rodriguez and Jeremy Jordan
The sport marketing field has neglected to study the Latino population despite escalating amounts of consumer research within the marketing literature focusing on this market segment. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to examine the potential predictors of conative loyalty (i.e., purchase intentions) of the Latino fan by testing the Model of Sport Spectator Conative Loyalty (Model B) on a Latino sample. In addition, we wanted to compare the relationships within the model between Latinos and Non-Latinos to study the potential differences between the two market segments. The participants were Latino (n = 127) and Non-Latino (n = 186) attendees of a professional Major League Baseball game in the Southeastern United States. Even though the model results were very similar for both groups, differences do exist between Latinos and Non-Latinos in terms of specific sport consumer behavior relationships (e.g., BIRGing and CORFing on Conative Loyalty).
the concept of BIRGing, or basking in reflected glory. In Chapters 4–6, the authors analyze the results of a national survey related to public (sport fans and non–sport fans) perceptions of the Native American mascot debate. A total of 1,076 respondents completed a comprehensive survey based on
Ben Larkin and Janet S. Fink
exists a school of thought that team identification is inherently multidimensional and should be measured as such. As for future research, scholars should investigate the relationship between collective narcissism and BIRGing (i.e., basking-in-reflected-glory) and CORFing. Given that collective
Maurice Vergeer and Leon Mulder
players who perform better on the pitch (i.e., high-scoring players) also perform better on Twitter (i.e., in terms of their popularity on Twitter). An explanation for this phenomenon can be found in Cialdini et al.’s ( 1976 ) theory of basking in reflected glory (BIRGing) about “success fans” and “fair
Yonghwan Chang, Daniel L. Wann and Yuhei Inoue
, categorization processes, and self-esteem in sports spectator aggression . Human Relations, 45 , 1013 – 1033 . doi:10.1177/001872679204501001 10.1177/001872679204501001 Campbell , R.M. , Jr. , Aiken , D. , & Kent , A. ( 2004 ). Beyond BIRGing and CORFing: Continuing the exploration of fan behavior
Jan Haut, Freya Gassmann, Eike Emrich, Tim Meyer and Christian Pierdzioch
.1080/13216597.2015.1106961 Campbell , R.M. , Aiken , D. , & Kent , A. ( 2004 ). Beyond BIRGing and CORFing: Continuing the Exploration of Fan Behavior . Sport Marketing Quarterly, 13 ( 3 ), 151 – 157 . Chalip , L.B. , Green , C. , Taks , M. , & Misener , L. ( 2016 ). Creating sport participation from sport events