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Francesco Campa, Catarina N. Matias, Elisabetta Marini, Steven B. Heymsfield, Stefania Toselli, Luís B. Sardinha, and Analiza M. Silva

conditions. 3 , 4 The bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA), described in detail by Piccoli et al, 5 Lukaski and Piccoli, 6 and Buffa et al, 7 considers the impedance components (resistance [R] and reactance [Xc]) independently of regression predictions of fluid volumes or assumptions about the

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Francesco Campa, Hannes Gatterer, Henry Lukaski, and Stefania Toselli

Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) has been suggested to be capable of assessing fluid changes under various conditions. 1 – 4 BIVA 5 classifies changes in hydration status by solely considering impedance components (resistance [ R ] and reactance [ X c ]). One limitation of

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Josely C. Koury, Nádia M.F. Trugo, and Alexandre G. Torres

The aim of the current study was to assess phase angle (PA) and bioelectrical impedance vectors (BIVA) in adolescent (n = 105, 12–19 y) and adult (n = 90, 20–50 y) male athletes practicing varied sports modalities. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed with a single-frequency tetrapolar impedance analyzer after the athletes had fasted overnight for 8 h. PA and BIVA were determined from BIA data. PA presented correlations (P < .01) with body-mass index (r = .58) in all athletes and also with age in adolescent (r = .63) and adult (r = –.27) athletes. Compared with adults, adolescent athletes presented lower PA and higher frequency of PA below the 5th percentile of a reference population (P < .001). The adolescents with low PA were mostly football and basketball players. The BIVA confidence ellipses of adult and adolescent athletes were different (P < .001) between them and from their respective reference populations and were closer than those of adult and adolescent nonathletes. About 80% of the athletes were in the 95th percentile of BIVA tolerance ellipses and in quadrants consistent with adequate body cell mass and total body water. The adolescent athletes outside the 95th percentile ellipse were all football and basketball players who showed indications of decreased water retention and body cell mass and of increased water retention, respectively. PA and BIVA ellipses showed that the intense training routine of the athletes changed functional and hydration parameters and that the magnitude of these changes in adolescents may depend on the sport modality practiced.

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Matteo Levi Micheli, Luca Pagani, Mario Marella, Massimo Gulisano, Antonio Piccoli, Fabrizio Angelini, Martin Burtscher, and Hannes Gatterer


Bioelectrical-impedance standards (resistance, reactance, and phase angle) are well established for the normal population or in the clinical setting and are considered indicators for cell mass, cell function, and hydration status. However, such standards do not exist for the male soccer population. Therefore, the goal of the current investigation was to provide a set of bioelectrical-impedance data of a large sample of soccer players with different performance levels.


A sample of 893 players, registered in all Italian soccer divisions, was divided into 5 groups according to their performance level. Whole-body impedance measurements were performed during the first half of the competitive period. Besides estimation of body composition, bioelectrical-impedance vector analysis (BIVA) was performed. BIVA does not depend on equations and displays differences in hydration and body-cell mass (BCM). Individual vectors can be classified by using the 50%, 75%, and 95% tolerance ellipse.


In comparison with the other divisions and the normal population, the mean vector of the elite level showed a shift to the left (P < .001). Compared with the elite level, players of a lower performance level had lower phase angles, BCM, and fat-free mass.


In conclusion, soccer players belong to a specific population. Muscle mass and function, as indicated by BCM and phase angle, increase with increasing performance level. The soccer-specific tolerance ellipses might be used for classifying individual vectors and to define target regions for low-level players.

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Francesco Campa and Stefania Toselli

Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a fast, safe, and noninvasive method to obtain quantitative estimates of body composition (BC) values. 1 BIA data (resistance and reactance), through bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA), are used to evaluate cellular function and hydration

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Amy A. Eyler, Aaron Hipp, Cheryl Ann Valko, Ramya Ramadas, and Marissa Zwald

acknowledge Moore Ruble Yudell Architects & Planners, The Brown School, and Washington University in St. Louis for providing financial support for this study. Special thanks to the many students who helped collect and analyze data, including Maya Mackenzie, Hope O’Brien, Clarine Esperanza, Eva Sarai, and Biva

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Peter Leo, James Spragg, Iñigo Mujika, Andrea Giorgi, Dan Lorang, Dieter Simon, and Justin S. Lawley

-10 cycling grand tour finisher . J Sports Sci . 2015 ; 33 ( 9 ): 907 – 914 . PubMed ID: 25357188 doi: 10.1080/02640414.2014.969296 25357188 5. Giorgi A , Vicini M , Pollastri L , et al . Bioimpedance patterns and bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) of road cyclists . J