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Heather Hayes Betz, Joey C. Eisenmann, Kelly R. Laurson, Katrina D. DuBose, Mathew J. Reeves, Joseph J. Carlson and Karin A. Pfeiffer

, 26 ) and between body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure ( 2 , 28 , 49 ). Physical activity, a cornerstone in the prevention and treatment of obesity and cardiovascular disease, has been shown to be inversely related to fatness in both children and adults ( 16 ), but the relationship between

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Kasper Salin, Mikko Huhtiniemi, Anthony Watt, Harto Hakonen and Timo Jaakkola

in PA and ST among 11- to 12-year-old Finnish children and among groups with different body mass index (BMI) during weekdays and weekends. Physical activity guidelines for children aged 5–17 years outline that at least 60 minutes of MVPA is necessary every day to gain health benefits. 6 During

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Nadia Cristina Valentini, Glauber Carvalho Nobre, Mariele Santayana de Souza and Michael J. Duncan

Contemporary researchers agree that motor competence, body mass index (BMI), and perceptions of competence are somewhat related and contributors to overall children physical activity (PA) and health. 1 – 3 Considerable work has been conducted examining the associations between children’s PA and

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Timothy L. Barnes, Erin K. Howie, Suzanne McDermott and Joshua R. Mann

Background:

Few studies have documented physical activity (PA) and overweight and obesity in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) using both self-report and objective methods. We sought to characterize PA in adults with ID and examine the associations between self-reported activity types, objectively-measured PA, and objectively-measured body mass index (BMI).

Methods:

Self-reported PA and BMI were measured on 294 adults with ID. Accelerometry was collected on 131 of those participants. Differences in BMI and accelerometry by demographic factors and activity types were examined.

Results:

Among the participants, 79.6% were overweight or obese and 23.7% met recommended PA guidelines. The mean amount of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) per week was 108.6 minutes. The most common activities reported were walking (53.7%) and inside chores (42.5%). Twenty-six percent reported no activity. Biking and jogging/running was associated with lower BMI. Self reports of playing basketball, softball, and outside chores were associated with increased MVPA.

Conclusion:

In this sample of adults with ID, most participants were overweight or obese and PA levels were below national averages. Select self-reported activities and greater objectively measured PA were associated with lower BMI.

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Karen Roemer, Tibor Hortobagyi, Chris Richter, Yolanda Munoz-Maldonado and Stephanie Hamilton

Although an authoritative panel recommended the use of ergometer rowing as a non-weight-bearing form of exercise for obese adults, the biomechanical characterization of ergometer rowing is strikingly absent. We examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) relative to the lower extremity biomechanics during rowing in 10 normal weight (BMI 18–25), 10 overweight (BMI 25–30 kg·m−2), and 10 obese (BMI > 30 kg·m−2) participants. The results showed that BMI affects joint kinematics and primarily knee joint kinetics. The data revealed that high BMI leads to unfavorable knee joint torques, implying increased loads of the medial compartment in the knee joint that could be avoided by allowing more variable foot positioning on future designs of rowing ergometers.

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Ignacio Perez-Pozuelo, Thomas White, Kate Westgate, Katrien Wijndaele, Nicholas J. Wareham and Soren Brage

expenditure (PAEE) in a large cohort of United Kingdom (UK) adults ( n  = 2,043 participants). These analyses allow us to further understand the distribution of sedentary and active behaviors in the population and how this distribution may differ based on time of the day, sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and

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David A. Rowe and Matthew T. Mahar

Background:

The purpose of the study was to evaluate race-specific FITNESSGRAM® body mass index (BMI) standards in comparison to the recommended standards, i.e., percent fat (%BF) ≥25 in boys and %BF ≥32 in girls.

Methods:

BMI and %BF were estimated in 1,968 Black and White children ages 6-14 years, using methods similar to those used to develop the current FITNESSGRAM standards. Multiple regression was employed to develop age-, sex-, and race-specific BMI standards. Percent agreement and modified kappa (κq) were used to evaluate agreement with the %BF standards, and sensitivity and specificity were used to evaluate classification accuracy.

Results:

Race significantly (p < .05) and meaningfully (β = 2.3% fat) added to the relationship between BMI and %BF. Agreement of the race-specific BMI standards with %BF standards was moderate to high (κq = .73–.88), and classification accuracy improved on the current FITNESSGRAM BMI standards.

Conclusions:

Race-specific BMI standards appear to be a more accurate representation of unhealthy %BF levels than the current FITNESSGRAM BMI standards.

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Jorge Mota, José Carlos Ribeiro, Joana Carvalho and Maria Paula Santos

Background:

The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between active transport (AT), nonorganized out of school physical activity (NOPA) and organized out of school PA (OPA) with BMI in Portuguese adolescents.

Methods:

The sample comprised 1121 adolescents age 13 to 17 years-old, which were assigned to 1 of 4 PA groups according to the sum of participation in different physical activity behaviors outside of school [AT, OPA, and NOPA].

Results:

In boys but not in girls, BMI was lower as the participation in more PA behaviors outside school increased. For those who only carry out 1 PA behavior, AT was the most common behavior (boys = 48.9%; girls = 55.1%). On the other hand, NOPA was the most common behavior for those engaged in 2 types of PA (girls = 51.6%; boys = 46%). For those that carried out all the PA behaviors outside school OPA was the most common choice in both girls (59.5%) and boys (54%). AT, NOPA and OPA are different sources of PA outside school that accrued in different ways to the increased level of PA.

Conclusions:

In boys but not in girls, BMI was lower as the participation in more PA behaviors outside school increased.

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Derya Celik, Ahmet Dirican and Gul Baltaci

Context: Handheld dynamometry (HHD) is considered an objective method of measuring strength, but the reliability of the procedure can be compromised by inadequate tester strength and insufficient stabilization of the dynamometer especially, for the scapular muscles. Objective: Primarily, to determine the intrarater reliability of HHD when testing shoulder and scapular muscle strength, and secondarily, to report reliability when corrected for body-mass index (BMI). Design: Technical report. Setting: University physiotherapy department. Participants: 57 adults (17 men, 40 women; mean age = 35.05 ± 13.5 y), both healthy individuals and patients with shoulder impingement. Intervention: HHD. Main Outcome Variables: Muscle strength of the upper, middle, and lower trapezius; anterior deltoid; serratus anterior; supraspinatus; and latissimus dorsi determined by HHD. Each muscle was assessed 3 times, and the mean value was calculated. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to BMI. Group 1: BMI ≤ 20 kg/m2 (n = 22); Group 2: BMI ≤ 24.9 kg/m2 (n = 54); and Group 3: BMI ≤ 29.9 kg/m2 (n = 38). Results: Correlations were calculated for each pair of strength scores. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranged from .77 to .99 in healthy subjects and from .75 to .99 in patients, for all muscle groups except the upper trapezius (P < .05). Reliability values ranged from good to high in healthy subjects but were less consistent for the upper trapezius (ICC .45-.65). The relationship with BMI and muscle strength illustrates that as BMI increases, there is a decrease in reliability values of the lower trapezius (ICC = .35-.65). Conclusion: The study demonstrates that evaluating the strength of scapular and shoulder muscles using HHD presents reliable results for both patients with impingement syndrome and healthy subjects. Reliability values were compressed when testing the trapezius in subjects with higher BMI. This is likely a result of the examiner's difficulty in overcoming the patients with this maneuver.

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Zhang Ying, Liu Dong Ning and Liu Xin

Background:

Seldom studies are about the relationship between built environment and physical activity, weight, and health outcome in meso- and microscales.

Methods:

1100 residents aged 46 to 80 were recruited from 80 neighborhoods of 13 selected communities of Shanghai, China. An analysis of the relationship between dependent variables (physical activity, Body Mass Index [BMI], overweight/obesity, weight, and health outcomes) and independent variables (involved a geographic-information-system-derived measure of built environment) was conducted with hierarchical linear models.

Results:

Street connectivity was positively associated with physical activity (P < .01). River proximity was inversely related with overweight/obesity (P = .0220). Parkland and square proximity have a significant relationship with physical activity (P = .0270, .0010), BMI (P = .0260, .0130), and overweight/obesity (P = .0020, .0470). Land-use mix was positively associated with physical activity (P < .01) and inversely associated with BMI (P = .0240) and overweight/obesity (P = .0440). Green and open spaces were positively related with BMI (P < .01) and health status (P < .01). For residential style, residents living in a village were more likely to have a lower BMI and overweight/obesity than those living in an urban old or newer residential building. The direct effect of square proximity is much stronger than the indirect effect on BMI through physical activity.

Conclusions:

The findings can help planners build more pedestrian-friendly communities. They are also useful for creating interventions that are sensitive to possible environmental barriers to physical activity in older adults.