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Heather Hayes Betz, Joey C. Eisenmann, Kelly R. Laurson, Katrina D. DuBose, Mathew J. Reeves, Joseph J. Carlson, and Karin A. Pfeiffer

, 26 ) and between body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure ( 2 , 28 , 49 ). Physical activity, a cornerstone in the prevention and treatment of obesity and cardiovascular disease, has been shown to be inversely related to fatness in both children and adults ( 16 ), but the relationship between

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Timothy L. Barnes, Erin K. Howie, Suzanne McDermott, and Joshua R. Mann

Background:

Few studies have documented physical activity (PA) and overweight and obesity in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) using both self-report and objective methods. We sought to characterize PA in adults with ID and examine the associations between self-reported activity types, objectively-measured PA, and objectively-measured body mass index (BMI).

Methods:

Self-reported PA and BMI were measured on 294 adults with ID. Accelerometry was collected on 131 of those participants. Differences in BMI and accelerometry by demographic factors and activity types were examined.

Results:

Among the participants, 79.6% were overweight or obese and 23.7% met recommended PA guidelines. The mean amount of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) per week was 108.6 minutes. The most common activities reported were walking (53.7%) and inside chores (42.5%). Twenty-six percent reported no activity. Biking and jogging/running was associated with lower BMI. Self reports of playing basketball, softball, and outside chores were associated with increased MVPA.

Conclusion:

In this sample of adults with ID, most participants were overweight or obese and PA levels were below national averages. Select self-reported activities and greater objectively measured PA were associated with lower BMI.

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Kasper Salin, Mikko Huhtiniemi, Anthony Watt, Harto Hakonen, and Timo Jaakkola

in PA and ST among 11- to 12-year-old Finnish children and among groups with different body mass index (BMI) during weekdays and weekends. Physical activity guidelines for children aged 5–17 years outline that at least 60 minutes of MVPA is necessary every day to gain health benefits. 6 During

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Ignacio Perez-Pozuelo, Thomas White, Kate Westgate, Katrien Wijndaele, Nicholas J. Wareham, and Soren Brage

expenditure (PAEE) in a large cohort of United Kingdom (UK) adults ( n  = 2,043 participants). These analyses allow us to further understand the distribution of sedentary and active behaviors in the population and how this distribution may differ based on time of the day, sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and

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Nadia Cristina Valentini, Glauber Carvalho Nobre, Mariele Santayana de Souza, and Michael J. Duncan

Contemporary researchers agree that motor competence, body mass index (BMI), and perceptions of competence are somewhat related and contributors to overall children physical activity (PA) and health. 1 – 3 Considerable work has been conducted examining the associations between children’s PA and

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Paulo Felipe Ribeiro Bandeira, Michael Duncan, Maria Luiza Pessoa, Ívina Soares, Larissa da Silva, Jorge Mota, and Clarice Martins

TGMD-2 for a low-income sample of preschool children; and investigate the possible associations between the final model proposed with sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). Methods Study Description Data were collected as part of three different projects with low-income children and adolescents. The

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Derya Celik, Ahmet Dirican, and Gul Baltaci

Context: Handheld dynamometry (HHD) is considered an objective method of measuring strength, but the reliability of the procedure can be compromised by inadequate tester strength and insufficient stabilization of the dynamometer especially, for the scapular muscles. Objective: Primarily, to determine the intrarater reliability of HHD when testing shoulder and scapular muscle strength, and secondarily, to report reliability when corrected for body-mass index (BMI). Design: Technical report. Setting: University physiotherapy department. Participants: 57 adults (17 men, 40 women; mean age = 35.05 ± 13.5 y), both healthy individuals and patients with shoulder impingement. Intervention: HHD. Main Outcome Variables: Muscle strength of the upper, middle, and lower trapezius; anterior deltoid; serratus anterior; supraspinatus; and latissimus dorsi determined by HHD. Each muscle was assessed 3 times, and the mean value was calculated. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to BMI. Group 1: BMI ≤ 20 kg/m2 (n = 22); Group 2: BMI ≤ 24.9 kg/m2 (n = 54); and Group 3: BMI ≤ 29.9 kg/m2 (n = 38). Results: Correlations were calculated for each pair of strength scores. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranged from .77 to .99 in healthy subjects and from .75 to .99 in patients, for all muscle groups except the upper trapezius (P < .05). Reliability values ranged from good to high in healthy subjects but were less consistent for the upper trapezius (ICC .45-.65). The relationship with BMI and muscle strength illustrates that as BMI increases, there is a decrease in reliability values of the lower trapezius (ICC = .35-.65). Conclusion: The study demonstrates that evaluating the strength of scapular and shoulder muscles using HHD presents reliable results for both patients with impingement syndrome and healthy subjects. Reliability values were compressed when testing the trapezius in subjects with higher BMI. This is likely a result of the examiner's difficulty in overcoming the patients with this maneuver.

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Zhang Ying, Liu Dong Ning, and Liu Xin

Background:

Seldom studies are about the relationship between built environment and physical activity, weight, and health outcome in meso- and microscales.

Methods:

1100 residents aged 46 to 80 were recruited from 80 neighborhoods of 13 selected communities of Shanghai, China. An analysis of the relationship between dependent variables (physical activity, Body Mass Index [BMI], overweight/obesity, weight, and health outcomes) and independent variables (involved a geographic-information-system-derived measure of built environment) was conducted with hierarchical linear models.

Results:

Street connectivity was positively associated with physical activity (P < .01). River proximity was inversely related with overweight/obesity (P = .0220). Parkland and square proximity have a significant relationship with physical activity (P = .0270, .0010), BMI (P = .0260, .0130), and overweight/obesity (P = .0020, .0470). Land-use mix was positively associated with physical activity (P < .01) and inversely associated with BMI (P = .0240) and overweight/obesity (P = .0440). Green and open spaces were positively related with BMI (P < .01) and health status (P < .01). For residential style, residents living in a village were more likely to have a lower BMI and overweight/obesity than those living in an urban old or newer residential building. The direct effect of square proximity is much stronger than the indirect effect on BMI through physical activity.

Conclusions:

The findings can help planners build more pedestrian-friendly communities. They are also useful for creating interventions that are sensitive to possible environmental barriers to physical activity in older adults.

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Karen Roemer, Tibor Hortobagyi, Chris Richter, Yolanda Munoz-Maldonado, and Stephanie Hamilton

Although an authoritative panel recommended the use of ergometer rowing as a non-weight-bearing form of exercise for obese adults, the biomechanical characterization of ergometer rowing is strikingly absent. We examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) relative to the lower extremity biomechanics during rowing in 10 normal weight (BMI 18–25), 10 overweight (BMI 25–30 kg·m−2), and 10 obese (BMI > 30 kg·m−2) participants. The results showed that BMI affects joint kinematics and primarily knee joint kinetics. The data revealed that high BMI leads to unfavorable knee joint torques, implying increased loads of the medial compartment in the knee joint that could be avoided by allowing more variable foot positioning on future designs of rowing ergometers.

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Constantinos A. Loucaides and Russell Jago

Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pedometer-assessed physical activity and a number of individual, social, and environmental correlates among Cypriot elementary school children.

Methods:

School children in grades 5 and 6 (N = 104) and their parents (N = 70) wore pedometers for five consecutive weekdays and completed questionnaires assessing potential correlates of steps/d.

Results:

A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that gender, weekly frequency of sports club attendance, and hours playing outside accounted for 32% of the variance in steps/d. In addition, children with a body-mass index (BMI) above the 85th percentile (based on age and gender) scored significantly lower steps/d than children with a BMI below the 85th percentile.

Conclusions:

This study suggested that correlates of steps/d in children are similar to the findings of other studies using different measures of physical activity behavior.