Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 25 items for :

Clear All
Restricted access

Jason C. Holmes, Ann L. Gibson, J. Gualberto Cremades and Constance M. Mier

Objective:

To compare estimates of body density (Db) from air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) with measured and predicted thoracic-gas-volume (TGV) measurements and those from hydrodensitometry (HD) in children.

Methods:

Seventeen participants (13 male and 4 female; 10.1 ± 2.20 yr, 42.0 ± 15.03 kg, 145.6 ± 17.41 cm, 30.0 ± 8.66 kg/m2) were tested using ADP and HD, with ADP always preceding HD. Db estimates were compared between ADP with measured TGV, ADP with predicted TGV, and the reference measure, HD. Regression analyses were used to assess the accuracy of the ADP methods, and potential bias between the ADP procedures and HD were evaluated using Bland–Altman analyses. The cross-validation criteria described by Lohman for estimating Db relative to HD were used to interpret the results of the study.

Results:

A significant difference was found between Db estimates from ADP with measured TGV (1.0453 ± 0.01934 g/cm3) and ADP with predicted TGV (1.0415 ± 0.01858 g/cm3); however, neither was significantly different from Db obtained by the reference HD procedure (1.0417 ± 0.02391 g/cm3). For both ADP procedures, regression analyses produced an r = .737–.738, r 2 = .543−.544, and SEE = 0.02 g/cm3, and the regression lines deviated significantly from the line of identity; however, no significant biases were indicated.

Conclusions:

Despite no significant mean differences between Db estimates from the ADP procedures and HD, more cross-validation research is needed before recommending the BOD POD for routine use with children in clinical and research settings.

Restricted access

Beau Kjerulf Greer, Kathleen M. Edsall and Anna E. Greer

The purpose of the current study was to determine whether expected changes in body weight via a 3-day low-carbohydrate (LC) diet will disrupt the reliability of air displacement plethysmography measurements via BOD POD. Twenty-four subjects recorded their typical diets for 3 days before BOD POD and 7-site skinfold analyses. Subjects were matched for lean body mass and divided into low-CHO (LC) and control (CON) groups. The LC group was given instruction intended to prevent more than 50 grams/day of carbohydrate consumption for 3 consecutive days, and the CON group replicated their previously recorded diet. Body composition measurements were repeated after dietary intervention. Test–retest reliability measures were significant (p < .01) and high for body fat percentage in both the LC and the CON groups (rs = .993 and .965, respectively). Likewise, skinfold analysis for body fat percentage reliability was high in both groups (rs = .996 and .997, respectively). There were significant differences between 1st and 2nd BOD POD measurements for body mass (72.9 ± 13.3 vs. 72.1 ± 13.0 kg [M ± SD]) and body volume (69.0 ± 12.7–68.1 ± 12.2 L) in the LC group (p < .05). However, there were no differences (p > .05) in BOD POD–determined body fat percentage, lean body mass, or fat mass between the 1st and 2nd trial in either group. Body composition measures via BOD POD and 7-site skinfolds remain reliable after 3 days of an LC diet despite significant decreases in body mass.

Restricted access

Christopher Rosimus

Composition Body composition (weight—sum of eight skinfolds) and estimates of lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass (FM) using the BOD POD™ (BOD POD Body Composition by Air Displacement Plethysmography; COSMED, Rome, Italy) were measured at baseline, Week 3, and Week 6. Body weight was measured using balance

Restricted access

Ryan McGrath, Chantal A. Vella, Philip W. Scruggs, Mark D. Peterson, Christopher J. Williams and David R. Paul

, participants completed a body composition assessment using the BOD POD (COSMED, Rome, Italy). The protocol for estimating body volume with the BOD POD and the equation to determine body composition are published elsewhere. 17 , 18 After the body composition assessment was completed, an investigator reviewed

Restricted access

Bruce W. Bailey, Pamela Borup, James D. LeCheminant, Larry A. Tucker and Jacob Bromley

Background:

The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between intensity of physical activity (PA) and body composition in 343 young women.

Methods:

Physical activity was objectively measured using accelerometers worn for 7 days in women 17 to 25 years. Body composition was assessed using the BOD POD.

Results:

Young women who spent less than 30 minutes a week performing vigorous PA had significantly higher body fat percentages than women who performed more than 30 minutes of vigorous PA per week (F = 4.54, P = .0113). Young women who spent less than 30 minutes per day in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) had significantly higher body fat percentages than those who obtained more than 30 minutes per day of MVPA (F = 7.47, P = .0066). Accumulating more than 90 minutes of MVPA per day was associated with the lowest percent body fat. For every 10 minutes spent in MVPA per day, the odds of having a body fat percentage above 32% decreased by 29% (P = .0002).

Conclusion:

Vigorous PA and MVPA are associated with lower adiposity. Young women should be encouraged to accumulate at least 30 minutes of MVPA per day, however getting more than 90 minutes a day is predictive of even lower levels of adiposity.

Restricted access

Radamés M.V. Medeiros, Eduardo S. Alves, Valdir A. Lemos, Paulo A. Schwingel, Andressa da Silva, Roberto Vital, Alexandre S. Vieira, Murilo M. Barreto, Edilson A. Rocha, Sergio Tufik and Marco T. de Mello

Context:

Body-composition assessments of high-performance athletes are very important for identifying physical performance potential. Although the relationship between the kinanthropometric characteristics and performance abilities of Olympic swimmers is extremely important, this subject is not completely understood for Paralympic swimmers.

Objective:

To investigate the relationship between body composition and sport performance in Brazilian Paralympic swimmers 6 mo after training.

Design:

Experimental pre/posttest design.

Setting:

Research laboratory and field evaluations of swimming were conducted to verify the 50-m freestyle time of each athlete.

Participants:

17 Brazilian Paralympic swim team athletes (12 men, 5 women).

Main Outcome Measures:

Body-composition assessments were performed using a BOD POD, and swimming performance was assessed using the 50-m freestyle, which was performed twice: before and after 6 mo of training.

Results:

Increased lean mass and significantly reduced relative fat mass and swimming time (P < .05) were observed 6 mo after training. Furthermore, a positive correlation between body-fat percentage and performance (r = .66, P < .05) was observed, but there was no significant correlation between body density and performance (r = –.14, P > .05).

Conclusions:

After a 6-mo training period, Paralympic swimmers presented reduced fat mass and increased lean body mass associated with performance, as measured by 50-m freestyle time. These data suggest that reduced fat-mass percentage was significantly correlated with improved swimming performance in Paralympic athletes.

Restricted access

Lance E. Davidson, Larry Tucker and Travis Peterson

Background:

The influence of physical activity (PA) changes on risk of abdominal fat gain in midlife women has not been studied using objective measures and controlling for potentially confounding variables.

Methods:

Changes in PA were assessed within a prospective cohort of 233 middle-age (40 ± 3 years), nonobese, nonsmoking, primarily Caucasian women by using accelerometers, worn continuously for 7 consecutive days at baseline and again at a 20 month follow-up. Weighed food intake diaries were completed on concurrent days. Bod Pod assessed total body fat. Abdominal fat was measured by abdominal circumference at the umbilicus.

Results:

Women who decreased PA gained abdominal fat across 20 months, while women who increased PA (F = 4.82, P = .009) did not. Change in PA remained an independent predictor of abdominal fat change after adjusting for potential confounders, including changes in total body fat and total energy intake. Compared with women who maintained or decreased PA, women who increased PA had approximately half the risk (RR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.98) of gaining abdominal fat.

Conclusions:

Increasing daily physical activity may attenuate risk of abdominal fat gain in middle-age women independent of changes in total body fat or energy intake.

Restricted access

Sarah J. Woodruff and Renee D. Meloche

Female athletes should aim to achieve energy balance to maintain health and have a high performance output. The purpose of this study was to investigate energy availability (EA) among members of a medium-size Canadian Interuniversity Sport women’s volleyball team and to describe exercise energy expenditure (ExEE) during practices, game warm-ups, and games. Total daily energy expenditure was assessed over 7 d using the Bodymedia Sensewear Mini armband, while energy intake (EI) was measured with dietary food logs. Body composition was assessed using air-displacement plethysmography (Bod Pod). Energy availability was calculated using the equation EA = (EIkcal – ExEEkcal)/kg fat-free mass (FFM). Participants consumed 3,435 (± 1,172) kcal/day and expended 3479 (± 604) kcal/day. Mean EA was 42.5 kcal · kg FFM-1 · d-1 across all 7 d, and 2 participants fell below the 30-kcal · kg FFM-1 · d-1 threshold. Furthermore, participants expended 511 (± 216), 402 (± 50), and 848 (± 155) kcal during practices, game warm-ups, and games, respectively. Overall, the participants were relatively weight stable and should be encouraged to continue fueling their exercise and high ExEE needs with appropriate nutritional strategies.

Restricted access

Asunción Ferri-Morales, Marcus Vinicius Nascimento-Ferreira, Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Esther Ubago-Guisado, Ana Torres-Costoso, Augusto Cesar F. De Moraes, Alan R. Barker, Luis A. Moreno, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaino and Luis Gracia-Marco

volume (49.887 L). Participants were tested wearing swimming suits and swimming caps to rule out air trapped in clothes and hair and with all jewelries removed. Each participant was weighed on the BOD POD calibrated digital scale and then entered into the BOD POD chamber. During the measurements

Restricted access

Justin J. Merrigan, James J. Tufano, Jonathan M. Oliver, Jason B. White, Jennifer B. Fields and Margaret T. Jones

to the laboratory, height and body mass were recorded to the nearest 0.01 cm and 0.02 kg, respectively, using a stadiometer (Detecto, Webb City, MO) and digital scale (BOD POD; COSMED USA Inc, Concord, CA) with subject’s barefoot. Body composition was assessed using air displacement plethysmography