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Deborah L. Feltz

scientist; I thought scientists were only men in white lab coats. I had no idea there were social scientists, but that is essentially what I became without even knowing it. I also had a sense of confidence in my abilities that I later came to understand was self-efficacy as defined by Bandura ( 1977

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Edward McAuley

Female undergraduate students (N - 39) were assigned to one of three conditions: aided participant modeling (APM), unaided participant modeling (UPM), or a control group followed by practice trials of a gymnastic skill. Subjects in both modeling groups reported higher self-efficacy expectations and lower anxiety ratings than the control group following treatment. The aided participant modeling group scored higher on the performance measure than did the unaided participant modeling group, and both modeling groups scored higher than the control group. Path analytic techniques were employed to test the fit of the data to Bandura's (1977a) self-efficacy model and an anxiety reduction model. Self-efficacy was a significant predictor of skill performance, but the anxiety-performance path was nonsignificant. Although Bandura's model did not fully explain the fit of the data to the fully recursive model, it proved to be a more parsimonious explanation of behavior change than was the anxiety reduction model. Despite the limitations imposed on the data by the small sample size, the present study suggests that self-efficacy is an influential determinant of motor skill acquisition.

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Robert Weinberg, Daniel Gould, and Allen Jackson

The present investigation was designed to test the predictions of Bandura's (1977) theory of self-efficacy in a competitive, motor-performance situation. Subjects (30 males and 30 females) were randomly assigned to either a high or low self-efficacy condition in a 2 × 2 × 2 (sex × self-efficacy × trials) factorial design. Self-efficacy was manipulated by having subjects compete against a confederate on a muscular leg-endurance task where the confederate was said to be either a varsity ;rack athlete who exhibited higher performance on a related task (low self-efficacy) or an individual who had a knee injury and exhibited poorer performance on a related task (high self-efficacy). Because self-efficacy theory predicts that expectation-performance differences are maximized in the face of obstacles and aversive consequences, the experiment was rigged so that subjects lost in competition to the confederate on both trials. The results supported self-efficacy predictions with the high self-efficacy subjects extending their legs significantly longer than low self-efficacy subjects. Moreover, after failing on the first trial, high self-efficacy subjects extended their legs for a longer time than low self-efficacy subjects on the second trial. A postexperimental questionnaire revealed significant differences in cognitive states (e.g., expectations, attributions, self-talk) between high and low self-efficacy subjects, as well as between males and females. Results are discussed in terms of learned helplessness and differing patterns of sex-role socialization.

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Deborah L. Feltz and Denise A. Mugno

The present investigation was designed to replicate and extend the Feltz (1982) study of the causal elements in Bandura's (1977) theory of self-efficacy. Path analysis techniques were employed to investigate the predictions based on Bandura's model of self-efficacy, along with the additional influence of autonomic perception on the approach/avoidance behavior of female college students (N = 80) attempting a modified-back dive. The Bandura model predicted a reciprocal relationship between self-efficacy and back-diving performance, and between self-efficacy and physiological arousal (heart rate). It was also predicted that autonomic perception was a better predictor of self-efficacy than was physiological arousal, but not better than previous back-diving performance. Additionally, self-efficacy was hypothesized to be the mediator of past performance accomplishments, physiological arousal, and autonomic perception on back-diving performance. Bandura's model was tested against a “full” model that included performance, autonomic perception, and actual physiological arousal, along with self-efficacy as direct causal influences of back-diving performance. Results provided greater support for the full model. Although one's self-efficacy was the major predictor of performance on Trial 1, subjects' heart rates also significantly predicted performance on Trial 1. After Trial 1, back-diving performance on a previous trial was the major predictor of performance on the next trial. Furthermore, one's perception of autonomic arousal was a significant influence on self-efficacy but not on performance. Previous back-diving performance, however, was a better predictor of self-efficacy than autonomic perception. No reciprocal relationship was found between self-efficacy and physiological arousal. Moreover, the full model explained more performance variance than did the Bandura model.

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Forest J. Jourden, Albert Bandura, and Jason T. Banfield

This study tested the hypothesis that conceptions of ability affect self-regulatory processes and the acquisition rate of a perceptual-motor skill. Subjects performed a rotary pursuit task under induced cognitive sets that task performance reflected inherent aptitude or acquirable skill. Their perceived self-efficacy, affective self-reactions, and performance attainments were measured over a series of trials. Subjects who performed the task under the inherent-aptitude conception of ability displayed no growth in perceived self-efficacy across phases, negative self-reactions to performances, low interest in the activity, and a limited level of skill development. In contrast, those who performed the task under the conception of ability as an acquirable skill displayed growth in perceived self-efficacy, positive self-reactions to their performances, widespread interest in the activity, and a high level of skill acquisition. The stronger the positive self-reactions, the greater the subsequent performance attainments.

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Tim Woodman, Matt Barlow, Comille Bandura, Miles Hill, Dominika Kupciw, and Alexandra MacGregor

Although high-risk sport participants are typically considered a homogenous risk-taking population, attitudes to risk within the high-risk domain can vary considerably. As no validated measure allows researchers to assess risk taking within this domain, we validated the Risk Taking Inventory (RTI) for high-risk sport across four studies. The RTI comprises seven items across two factors: deliberate risk taking and precautionary behaviors. In Study 1 (n = 341), the inventory was refined and tested via a confirmatory factor analysis used in an exploratory fashion. The subsequent three studies confirmed the RTI’s good model–data fit via three further separate confirmatory factor analyses. In Study 2 (n = 518) and in Study 3 (n = 290), concurrent validity was also confirmed via associations with other related traits (sensation seeking, behavioral activation, behavioral inhibition, impulsivity, self-esteem, extraversion, and conscientiousness). In Study 4 (n = 365), predictive validity was confirmed via associations with mean accidents and mean close calls in the high-risk domain. Finally, in Study 4, the self-report version of the inventory was significantly associated with an informant version of the inventory. The measure will allow researchers and practitioners to investigate risk taking as a variable that is conceptually distinct from participation in a high-risk sport.

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Xiaoxia Su, Ping Xiang, Ron E. McBride, Jiling Liu, and Michael A. Thornton

This study examined at-risk boys’ social self-efficacy and physical activity self-efficacy within Bandura’s self-efficacy framework. A total of 97 boys, aged between 10 and 13 years, attending a summer sports camp completed questionnaires assessing their social self-efficacy, physical activity self-efficacy, prosocial behaviors, and effort. Results indicated that social self-efficacy and physical activity self-efficacy were clearly distinguishable. However, the two constructs had a strong positive correlation. Both social self-efficacy and physical activity self-efficacy predicted prosocial behaviors significantly, with social self-efficacy having a stronger predictive power. Physical activity self-efficacy was a better predictor of effort than social self-efficacy. This study provides initial empirical evidence supporting Bandura’s conceptualization of the domain-specific features and predictive power of self-efficacy in a summer sports camp setting, and thus enables a better understanding of the nature and effects of self-efficacy.

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Gio Valiante and David B. Morris

The purpose of this study was to explore the self-efficacy beliefs of male professional golfers (N = 12). Three themes emerged from the qualitative analysis of interview responses. First, enactive mastery experiences were the most powerful source of self-efficacy. Second, golfers maintained high self-efficacy over time by recalling prior success, strategically framing experiences, and enlisting supportive verbal persuasions from themselves and from others. Finally, self-efficacy influenced professional golfers’ thought patterns, outcome expectations, and emotional states. Findings support and refine the theoretical tenets of Bandura’s social cognitive theory.

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Simon Driver

The purpose of the paper is to provide specialists with theoretical frameworks that can be used to guide the creation of physical activity interventions as well as facilitating participation for people with traumatic brain injuries. Two frameworks for examining the physical activity motivation of people with brain injuries are presented. The theories include Bandura’s (1986) self-efficacy theory and Harter’s (1987) mediational model of self-worth. The constructs within both theories are explained and then applied to people with brain injuries. Suggestions for practitioners are also provided about how to manipulate the physical activity environment to promote physical activity participation.

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David N. Daum and Amelia M. Woods

K-12 online physical education (OLPE) is as an educational opportunity in at least 30 states in the US (NASPE, 2006; 2010; 2012). The purpose of this study was to examine physical education teacher educators’ perceptions toward and understanding of K-12 OLPE. Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory (1986) served as the theoretical framework for this study. Data were collected utilizing semistructured open-ended interviews. Participants (N = 25) were current physical education teacher education (PETE) faculty members at universities granting bachelor’s degrees in physical education certification. Participants believed that NASPE (2004) National Physical Education Standards could be met online, except for Standard 1, which relates to motor skill competency. Participants were almost unanimous in their beliefs that OLPE should not be designed for elementary-aged children, but is viable at the high school level. This study provided initial insight into PETE faculty members’ knowledge about and perceptions of K-12 OLPE, however additional research is warranted.