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Geoffrey T. Burns, Kenneth M. Kozloff and Ronald F. Zernicke

means, toward the attainment of the desired goals” (p. 14). In the broadest sense, it is a ratio of outputs to inputs (i.e., benefits to costs). In the mechanical sense, it is the physical work of a system divided by the energetic demand of that system. Correspondingly, in biomechanics, gross human

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Kristof Kipp, Michael T. Kiely, Matthew D. Giordanelli, Philip J. Malloy and Christopher F. Geiser

-sectional differences and monitoring longitudinal changes in maximal dynamic lower-extremity performance. Although the RSI provides simple insight into dynamic lower-extremity performance during a DJ, not much is known about its biomechanical determinants. Beyond the variables of jump height and ground-contact time

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Daniel M. Grindle, Lauren Baker, Mike Furr, Tim Puterio, Brian Knarr and Jill Higginson

while they work. Currently, there is a lack of research on the gait biomechanics of walking workstation users. Working while walking may alter movement patterns, as previous studies have demonstrated that the performance of a secondary task during walking alters gait 12 – 14 especially in older

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Kimmery Migel and Erik Wikstrom

to contribute to aberrant gait biomechanics observed in those with CAI. More specifically, those with CAI demonstrate excessive inversion at heel strike and throughout stance as well as excessive inversion and plantar flexion in the swing phase of gait. 2 These impairments increase the risk of

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Louis R. Osternig

Column-editor : Robert D. Kersey

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Christopher A. DiCesare, Adam W. Kiefer, Scott Bonnette and Gregory D. Myer

Biomechanical analyses of sport movements have classically been used to quantify kinematic (ie, joint angular motion) and kinetic (ie, joint moments of force) factors in the context of task performance, injury risk, or pathology. Traditional biomechanical assessments include indices of walking and

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Scott Bonnette, Christopher A. DiCesare, Adam W. Kiefer, Michael A. Riley, Kim D. Barber Foss, Staci Thomas, Katie Kitchen, Jed A. Diekfuss and Gregory D. Myer

biomechanical performance improvements and increase retention and transfer. One potential avenue is through visual feedback manipulation in which the squat provides the ideal exercise for such investigation. Normally during the execution of a squat, the athlete maintains an upright posture with a forward

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Jianwei Duan, Kuan Wang, Tongbo Chang, Lejun Wang, Shengnian Zhang and Wenxin Niu

reduce the risk of OA ( Williams, 2013 ). Therefore, we can use walking as a safety standard to analyze BKTS. If this Tai Chi movement had a lower load or stress on the hip joint than walking, we could consider that it was safe enough for patients with OA. Biomechanics factors play an important role in

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Kimmery Migel and Erik Wikstrom

Key Points ▸ Four to 6 weeks of neuromuscular training does not improve gait biomechanics in those with chronic ankle instability. ▸ Augmentation of neuromuscular training programs may be beneficial. Clinical Scenario There are approximately 3.1 million lateral ankle sprains (LAS) diagnosed in the

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Christian A. Clermont, Lauren C. Benson, W. Brent Edwards, Blayne A. Hettinga and Reed Ferber

of many factors including alterations in running biomechanics, neuromuscular fatigue, and training errors. 5 Running in a fatigued state will affect a runner’s gait, potentially increasing the stress, strain, and impact forces within the lower extremities. 6 – 8 For example, it is well documented