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Ketra L. Armstrong

places for the “sheer joy” of Black students. They were places of pleasure, adventure, risk, and danger; and places where their minds were challenged, consciousness was awakened, and selves were invented and reinvented. She also commented on the critical role that Black teachers played in empowering

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Courtland C. Lee and Robert J. Rotella

This article examines important concepts for effective sport psychology consulting with black student athletes. First, sport psychology consultants are urged to examine their own cultural background prior to working with black student athletes. Second, a discussion of black expressiveness is presented to provide sport psychology consultants with a knowledge base from which to operate in interactions with black student athletes. Third, relevant skills are presented for effective sport psychology consulting with black student athletes. These skills are derived from consulting with and doing research on black student athletes.

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Sheriece Sadberry and Michael Mobley

Research has shown that African American college students have a difficult time adjusting at predominately White institutions (PWIs) in comparison with historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) with regard to both general and race-related stressors (Neville, Heppner, Ji, & Thye, 2004; Prillerman, Myers, & Smedley, 1989; Sedlacek, 1999). For college student-athletes, the campus environment can challenge their capacity to ft in and adhere to academic and social expectations, perhaps especially for Black student-athletes (BSA). The current study therefore examined the sociocultural and mental health adjustment of 98 BSA based on their perceived social support, perceived campus racial climate, team cohesion, and life events using latent profle analysis (LPA). Results indicated three distinct profile groups: Low Social Support/Cohesion, High Minority Stress, and High Social Support/Cohesion. Profiles were predictive of adjustment concerns and campus setting (PWIs vs. HBCUs), highlighting within-group differences among BSA. Implications for interventions to facilitate and support healthy adjustment and success for BSA are discussed.

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Kristopher White, Kathryn Wilson, Theresa A. Walton-Fisette, Brian H. Yim, and Michele K. Donnelly

; that is, the average of schools when each school was weighted by the number of Black students gave the racial and socioeconomic composition of high schools attended, on average, by Black students in the United States. The racial categories in the NCES were the same as perceived race categories we used

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Stacy Imagbe, Baofu Wang, Yang Liu, Jared Androzzi, Xiangli Gu, and Senlin Chen

purposeful counter strategies. Efforts to promote active living should be a priority for Black students as they are vulnerable to health risks and academic underachievement ( Paschall, Gershoff, & Kuhfeld, 2018 ) especially amid the COVID-19 pandemic ( Kim, Marrast, & Conigliaro, 2020 ; Yancy, 2020

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Susanne James-Burdumy, Nicholas Beyler, Kelley Borradaile, Martha Bleeker, Alyssa Maccarone, and Jane Fortson

Background:

The Playworks program places coaches in low-income urban schools to engage students in physical activity during recess. The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact of Playworks on students’ physical activity separately for Hispanic, non-Hispanic black, and non-Hispanic white students.

Methods:

Twenty-seven schools from 6 cities were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Accelerometers were used to measure the intensity of students’ physical activity, the number of steps taken, and the percentage of time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during recess. The impact of Playworks was estimated by comparing average physical activity outcomes in treatment and control groups.

Results:

Compared with non-Hispanic black students in control schools, non-Hispanic black students in Playworks schools recorded 338 more intensity counts per minute, 4.9 more steps per minute, and 6.3 percentage points more time in MVPA during recess. Playworks also had an impact on the number of steps per minute during recess for Hispanic students but no significant impact on the physical activity of non-Hispanic white students.

Conclusions:

The impact of Playworks was larger among minority students than among non-Hispanic white students. One possible explanation is that minority students in non-Playworks schools typically engaged in less physical activity, suggesting that there is more room for improvement.

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Robert M. Sellers

Concern over academic integrity in recent years has led the NCAA to establish eligibility standards for incoming student-athletes. This has stirred controversy because of the differential effects of the use of standardized test scores on black versus white student-athletes. The present study examines race differences in the predictors of college grade point average (GPA) for student-athletes participating in revenue producing sports. The findings suggest there are different predictors of college academic achievement for black versus white student-athletes. High school GPA and mother’s occupation are the only significant predictors of college GPA for black student-athletes. On the other hand, high school GPA, socioeconomic status, and SAT/ACT scores were significant predictors for white student-athletes. The results are discussed in light of the need for future investigations into the predictors of academic performance of student-athletes as well as current and future NCAA policy

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DeAnne Davis Brooks and Rob Knox

political environment. Some Black students felt a hopelessness and sadness associated with understanding the violence that befell George Floyd and Breonna Taylor could also happen to themselves or family members; they were especially vulnerable to fear, anxiety, and hypervigilance. Some managed feelings

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Peyton J. Stensland, Christopher M. Brown, and Alicia M. Cintron

student-athletes being told by their coaches to “go back to the hood” or “return to the ghetto” if they were struggling in a workout. Many of the team’s 71 Black student-athletes who corroborated the allegations also threatened to boycott practice and the upcoming season if changes were not made. Given

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Aquasia A. Shaw, Merry Moiseichik, Heather Blunt-Vinti, and Sarah Stokowski

environments . . . which serves as a layer of implicit manifestations of colorblind racism” ( Bimper & Harrison, 2015 , p. 10). When exploring the educational experiences of Black student-athletes, the role of race and racism needs to be examined, given the deceptive and indirect way in which racism often