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Laura Guidetti, Antonio Sgadari, Cosme F. Buzzachera, Marianna Broccatelli, Alan C. Utter, Fredric L. Goss and Carlo Baldari

This study examined the concurrent and construct validity of the OMNI-Cycle Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) Scale, using elderly men and women. Seventy-six participants performed a load-incremented cycle-ergometer exercise test. Concurrent validity was determined by correlating OMNI-RPE responses with oxygen uptake, relative peak oxygen uptake, pulmonary ventilation, heart rate, respiratory rate, and respiratory-exchange ratio during a load-incremented cycle-ergometer protocol. Construct validity was established by correlating RPE derived from the OMNI-Cycle Scale with RPE from the Borg (6–20) Scale. Multilevel, mixed linear-regression models indicated that OMNI-RPE distributed as a significant (p < .05) positive linear function (r = .81–.92) for all physiological measures. OMNI-RPE was positively (p < .01) and linearly related to Borg-RPE in elderly men (r = .97) and women (r = .96). This study demonstrates both concurrent and construct validity of the OMNI-Cycle RPE Scale. These findings support the use of this scaling metric with elderly men and women to estimate RPE during cycle-ergometer exercise.

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Luana T. Rossato, Camila T.M. Fernandes, Públio F. Vieira, Flávia M.S. de Branco, Paula C. Nahas, Guilherme M. Puga and Erick P. de Oliveira

variance was used to compare the effect of time, intervention, and time × intervention for variables HR, blood lactate, and ratings of perceived exertion (Borg scale). In addition, we calculated the effect size according to the family’s test, using Cohen d for t tests and partial eta squared ( η p 2

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Robert H. Mann, Craig A. Williams, Bryan C. Clift and Alan R. Barker

, the concept of RPE, and Foster’s modified CR-10 Borg scale. 8 Anthropometric measures, a baseline capillary blood sample, and resting heart rate (HR rest ) were collected, followed by the completion of a 2-part incremental treadmill test for the assessment of VO 2 max, maximum heart rate (HR max

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Justin H. Rigby and Austin M. Hagan

after the fatigue task, the participants rated their perceived level of exertion during the very end of the activity on the Borg scale (6–20 scale). Two LED light patches were applied to the anterior brachium over biceps brachii muscle, and a treatment, based on the participant’s random group assignment

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Haydee G. Galvan, Amanda J. Tritsch, Richard Tandy and Mack D. Rubley

Context:

Ice-bath temperatures range from 1 to 15ºC; the pain response during treatment might be temperature specific.

Objective:

To determine levels of perceived pain during ice-bath immersion at distinct temperatures.

Design:

2 (sex) × 3 (temperature) × 9 (treatment time).

Setting:

Athletic training research laboratory.

Participants:

32 healthy subjects.

Intervention:

Ankle immersion in 1, 10, and 15°C ice baths for 20 minutes.

Main Outcome Measures:

Discomfort measured by the Borg scale of perceived pain at immersion for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15, and 20 minutes.

Results:

The magnitude of pain felt depended on treatment temperature (F 18,522 = 11.65, P < .0001). Pain ratings were 43% higher for 1ºC than 10ºC and 70% higher than 15ºC, and ratings at 10ºC were 46% higher than at 15ºC.

Conclusions:

Pain depends on treatment temperature. Patients might report inconsistent pain ratings with varying temperature.

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Carlo Minganti, Laura Capranica, Romain Meeusen and Maria Francesca Piacentini

Purpose:

The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of perceived exertion (session-RPE) in quantifying internal training load in divers.

Methods:

Six elite divers, three males (age, 25.7 ± 6.1 y; stature, 1.71 ± 0.06 m; body mass, 66.7 ± 1.2 kg) and three females (age, 25.3 ± 0.6 y; stature, 1.63 ± 0.05 m; body mass, 58.3 ± 4.0 kg) were monitored during six training sessions within a week, which included 1 m and 3 m springboard dives. The Edwards summated heart rate zone method was used as a reference measure; the session-RPE rating was obtained using the CR-10 Borg scale modified by Foster and the 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS).

Results:

Significant correlations were found between CR-10 and VAS session-RPE and the Edwards summated heart rate zone method for training sessions (r range: 0.71–0.96; R 2 range: 0.50–0.92; P < 0.01) and for divers (r range: 0.67–0.96; R 2 range: 0.44–0.92; P < 0.01).

Conclusions:

These findings suggest that session-RPE can be useful for monitoring internal training load in divers.

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Mohamed Saifeddin Fessi and Wassim Moalla

Purpose: To assess postmatch perceived exertion, feeling, and wellness according to the match outcome (winning, drawing, or losing) in professional soccer players. Methods: In total, 12 outfield players were followed during 52 official matches where the outcomes (win, draw, or lose) were noted. Following each match, players completed both a 10-point Borg scale modified by Foster and an 11-point Hardy and Rejeski scale rating of perceived feeling. Rating of perceived sleep quality, stress, fatigue, and muscle soreness was collected separately on a 7-point scale the day following each match. Results: Player rating of perceived exertion was higher by a very large magnitude following a loss compared with a draw or a win and higher by a small magnitude after a draw compared with a win. Players felt more pleasure after a win compared with a draw or loss and more displeasure after a loss compared with draw. The players reported a largely and moderately better perceived sleep quality, less stress, and fatigue following a win compared with a draw or a loss and a moderately bad perceived sleep quality, higher stress, and fatigue following a draw compared with a loss. In contrast, only a trivial-small change was observed in perceived muscle soreness between all outcomes. Conclusion: Match outcomes moderately to largely affect rating of perceived exertion, feeling, sleep quality, stress, and fatigue, whereas perceived muscle soreness remains high regardless of the match outcome. However, winning a match decreases the strain and improves both pleasure and wellness in professional soccer players.

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Robert Arnhold, Nelson Ng and Gary Pechar

This study was conducted to determine the predictive ability of rated perceived exertion (RPE) of mentally retarded (MR) young adults with respect to heart rate (HR) and workload (WL). Subjects were a group of 10 mentally retarded adults (M age = 21.20 yrs, M IQ = 50.5) and a control group of 10 nonretarded adults (M age = 21.18 yrs). The procedure involved the performance of a continuous multistage treadmill test using a modified Balke protocol. Rated perceived exertion and heart rate were recorded after each minute. Correlation coefficients for both RPE/HR and RPE/WL were significant for both groups. Tests for differences in RPE/HR and RPE/WL correlation coefficients between the two groups indicated significance for RPE/HR but none for RPE/WL. Regression analysis revealed that variation in RPE could be explained by variations in HR and WL. The association between rated perceived exertion and heart rate and rated perceived exertion and workload suggests the use of the Borg scale with mentally retarded individuals.

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Jannique G.Z. van Uffelen, Marijke J.M. Chinapaw, Marijke Hopman-Rock and Willem van Mechelen

This study examined the feasibility and effect on aerobic fitness of a 1-yr, twice-weekly, group-based moderate-intensity walking program (MI-WP, n = 77) compared with a low-intensity activity program (LI-AP, n = 75) for community-dwelling older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Thirty participants did not start a program; median attendance in the other 122 participants was 71%. Small but significant associations were observed between attendance and memory in the MI-WP and general cognition in the LI-AP. Associations were no longer significant when both groups were analyzed together. Intensity, assessed using percentage of heart-rate reserve and the Borg scale, equaled intended intensity for both programs. Aerobic fitness improved significantly in participants in the MI-WP. In conclusion, cognition was not clearly associated with attendance in the 62 participants starting the MI-WP, and average attendance was good. The intensity was feasible for participants who continued the MI-WP. The findings support the proposal that regular moderate-intensity walking improves aerobic fitness in adults with MCI.

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Carlo Castagna, Mario Bizzini, Susana Cristina Araújo Póvoas and Stefano D’Ottavio

Purpose:

To examine the effect of recall timing on training-session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) in a population of athletes well familiarized with the method and procedures during a 5-d training microcycle.

Methods:

Fifty-one top-class field referees (FRs) (age 38.4 ± 3.3 y, height 181 ± 5.6 cm, body mass 76.8 ± 6.8 kg, body-mass index 23.4 ± 1.7 kg/m2, body fat 20.4% ± 3.6%, international refereeing experience 5 ± 3.5 y) from 43 national football associations worldwide, preselected by the FIFA refereeing department for officiating during the FIFA World Cup 2014 Brazil, volunteered for this study. The FRs were randomly allocated into 3 assessment groups (n = 17 each), defined according to the timing of the sRPE, ie, immediately at the end of or 30 min or 7 h after the training sessions’ end. The CR10 Borg scale was used to rate the training sessions (n = 5). All FRs again rated each training session of the 5-d training microcycle on the next morning (~20 h after) for confirmation (absolute and relative reliability).

Results:

No significant timing effect was found between or within groups. Relative reliability ranged from large to very large with trivial within- and between-groups differences.

Conclusions:

This study showed no effect of recall timing on postexercise RPE when well-familiarized athletes are submitted to training during a weekly microcycle. Posttraining RPE was reported to be a reliable subjective measure; however, specific timing is advisable to reduce difference in RPE values.