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Carlo Castagna, Mario Bizzini, Susana Cristina Araújo Póvoas, and Stefano D’Ottavio


To examine the effect of recall timing on training-session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) in a population of athletes well familiarized with the method and procedures during a 5-d training microcycle.


Fifty-one top-class field referees (FRs) (age 38.4 ± 3.3 y, height 181 ± 5.6 cm, body mass 76.8 ± 6.8 kg, body-mass index 23.4 ± 1.7 kg/m2, body fat 20.4% ± 3.6%, international refereeing experience 5 ± 3.5 y) from 43 national football associations worldwide, preselected by the FIFA refereeing department for officiating during the FIFA World Cup 2014 Brazil, volunteered for this study. The FRs were randomly allocated into 3 assessment groups (n = 17 each), defined according to the timing of the sRPE, ie, immediately at the end of or 30 min or 7 h after the training sessions’ end. The CR10 Borg scale was used to rate the training sessions (n = 5). All FRs again rated each training session of the 5-d training microcycle on the next morning (~20 h after) for confirmation (absolute and relative reliability).


No significant timing effect was found between or within groups. Relative reliability ranged from large to very large with trivial within- and between-groups differences.


This study showed no effect of recall timing on postexercise RPE when well-familiarized athletes are submitted to training during a weekly microcycle. Posttraining RPE was reported to be a reliable subjective measure; however, specific timing is advisable to reduce difference in RPE values.

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Mahin Aghdaei, Alireza Farsi, Maryam Khalaji, and Jared Porter

Much research has been executed to investigate how altering focus of attention impacts performance and feelings of fatigue. Using a within-participant design, the present study examined how an associative and dissociative attentional in addition to an internal and external attentional dimension influenced the running economy of nonprofessional runners. Twelve women (aged 18–30 years old) ran on a treadmill at 70% of their predetermined maximum velocity. Participants ran in four counterbalanced conditions (dissociative-external, dissociative-internal, associative-external, and associative-internal). Average oxygen volume, respiration volume and breathing frequency, heart rate, blood lactate level, and Borg rating of perceived exertion were measured. Our findings revealed when participants adopted a dissociative-external focus of attention, they consumed less oxygen, had lower blood lactate, and a lower rating of perceived exertion compared with trials completed using an associative attention strategy. The findings of this study demonstrate that running economy is improved and feelings of fatigue are lowest when using a combination of a dissociative-external focus of attention.

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Maurizio Fanchini, Ivan Ferraresi, Roberto Modena, Federico Schena, Aaron J. Coutts, and Franco M. Impellizzeri


To examine the construct validity of the session rating perceived exertion (s-RPE) assessed with the Borg CR100 scale to measure training loads in elite soccer and to examine if the CR100 is interchangeable and can provide more-accurate ratings than the CR10 scale.


Two studies were conducted. The validity of the CR100 was determined in 19 elite soccer players (age 28 ± 6 y, height 180 ± 7 cm, body mass 77 ± 6 kg) during training sessions through correlations with the Edwards heart-rate method (study 1). The interchangeability with CR10 was assessed in 78 soccer players (age 19.3 ± 4.1 y, height 178 ± 5.9 cm, body mass 71.4 ± 6.1 kg) through the Bland–Altman method and correlations between change scores in different sessions. To examine whether the CR100 is more finely graded than the CR10, the proportions of responses corresponding to the verbal expressions were calculated (study 2).


Individual correlations between the Edwards method and s-RPE were large to very large (.52–.85). The mean difference between the 2 scales was –0.3 ± 0.33 AU (90% CI –0.41 to –0.29) with 95% limits of agreements (0.31 to –0.96 AU). Correlations between scales and between-changes scores were nearly perfect (.95 and .91–.98). Ratings corresponding to the verbal anchors were 49% in CR10 and 26% in CR100.


The CR100 is valid for assessing the training load in elite soccer players. It can be used interchangeably with the CR10 and may provide more-precise measures of exercise intensity.

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Valentin Bottollier, Matt R. Cross, Nicolas Coulmy, Loïc Le Quellec, and Jacques Prioux

. Three minutes after the completion of the session, the subjects were asked to indicate their rate of perceived exertion (RPE) using Borg scale ranging from 6 to 20. 22 Biomechanical Measurements Tests were recorded by calibrated camera (Sony, DCR-SX34, Tokyo, Japan) sampling at 50 frames per second

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Luana T. Rossato, Camila T.M. Fernandes, Públio F. Vieira, Flávia M.S. de Branco, Paula C. Nahas, Guilherme M. Puga, and Erick P. de Oliveira

variance was used to compare the effect of time, intervention, and time × intervention for variables HR, blood lactate, and ratings of perceived exertion (Borg scale). In addition, we calculated the effect size according to the family’s test, using Cohen d for t tests and partial eta squared ( η p 2

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Robert H. Mann, Craig A. Williams, Bryan C. Clift, and Alan R. Barker

, the concept of RPE, and Foster’s modified CR-10 Borg scale. 8 Anthropometric measures, a baseline capillary blood sample, and resting heart rate (HR rest ) were collected, followed by the completion of a 2-part incremental treadmill test for the assessment of VO 2 max, maximum heart rate (HR max

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Justin H. Rigby and Austin M. Hagan

after the fatigue task, the participants rated their perceived level of exertion during the very end of the activity on the Borg scale (6–20 scale). Two LED light patches were applied to the anterior brachium over biceps brachii muscle, and a treatment, based on the participant’s random group assignment

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Haydee G. Galvan, Amanda J. Tritsch, Richard Tandy, and Mack D. Rubley


Ice-bath temperatures range from 1 to 15ºC; the pain response during treatment might be temperature specific.


To determine levels of perceived pain during ice-bath immersion at distinct temperatures.


2 (sex) × 3 (temperature) × 9 (treatment time).


Athletic training research laboratory.


32 healthy subjects.


Ankle immersion in 1, 10, and 15°C ice baths for 20 minutes.

Main Outcome Measures:

Discomfort measured by the Borg scale of perceived pain at immersion for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15, and 20 minutes.


The magnitude of pain felt depended on treatment temperature (F 18,522 = 11.65, P < .0001). Pain ratings were 43% higher for 1ºC than 10ºC and 70% higher than 15ºC, and ratings at 10ºC were 46% higher than at 15ºC.


Pain depends on treatment temperature. Patients might report inconsistent pain ratings with varying temperature.

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Robert Arnhold, Nelson Ng, and Gary Pechar

This study was conducted to determine the predictive ability of rated perceived exertion (RPE) of mentally retarded (MR) young adults with respect to heart rate (HR) and workload (WL). Subjects were a group of 10 mentally retarded adults (M age = 21.20 yrs, M IQ = 50.5) and a control group of 10 nonretarded adults (M age = 21.18 yrs). The procedure involved the performance of a continuous multistage treadmill test using a modified Balke protocol. Rated perceived exertion and heart rate were recorded after each minute. Correlation coefficients for both RPE/HR and RPE/WL were significant for both groups. Tests for differences in RPE/HR and RPE/WL correlation coefficients between the two groups indicated significance for RPE/HR but none for RPE/WL. Regression analysis revealed that variation in RPE could be explained by variations in HR and WL. The association between rated perceived exertion and heart rate and rated perceived exertion and workload suggests the use of the Borg scale with mentally retarded individuals.

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Jannique G.Z. van Uffelen, Marijke J.M. Chinapaw, Marijke Hopman-Rock, and Willem van Mechelen

This study examined the feasibility and effect on aerobic fitness of a 1-yr, twice-weekly, group-based moderate-intensity walking program (MI-WP, n = 77) compared with a low-intensity activity program (LI-AP, n = 75) for community-dwelling older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Thirty participants did not start a program; median attendance in the other 122 participants was 71%. Small but significant associations were observed between attendance and memory in the MI-WP and general cognition in the LI-AP. Associations were no longer significant when both groups were analyzed together. Intensity, assessed using percentage of heart-rate reserve and the Borg scale, equaled intended intensity for both programs. Aerobic fitness improved significantly in participants in the MI-WP. In conclusion, cognition was not clearly associated with attendance in the 62 participants starting the MI-WP, and average attendance was good. The intensity was feasible for participants who continued the MI-WP. The findings support the proposal that regular moderate-intensity walking improves aerobic fitness in adults with MCI.