To examine the reliability of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Long Form (BOTMP-LF), approximately 40 therapists completed a questionnaire on the administration and scoring of this test (72% response rate). A large degree of inconsistency between therapists was found. This prompted a study of interrater reliability of six therapists who received rigorous training on the BOTMP-LF. Results indicated that consistency of scoring between testers was statistically high for the battery, composite, and subtest scores. However, item-by-item agreement was low for many items, and agreement between raters on their diagnosis of the children as having motor problems was only fair to good. There was no difference in interrater reliability of the test for children with and without learning, attentional, or motor coordination problems. Some limitations of the BOTMP-LF are apparent from these studies.
Brenda N. Wilson, Bonnie J. Kaplan, Susan G. Crawford, and Deborah Dewey
Joan M.S. Verderber and V. Gregory Payne
The relationship between the long and short forms of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency was investigated. Forty-eight regular education students, who had been referred to adapted physical education, were administered the long form of this test. Short form scores were subsequently derived from the long form items. Pearson product-moment r values generally indicated strong relationships between long and short form scores when the data were converted to standard and percentile scores. T-test analyses, however, indicated that long and short form standard score mean differences were significant at the .01 level (conventional .05 alpha level was reduced to .01 by the Dunn Test) for the two younger age groups and the all-subjects group. These results indicate that placement decisions in adapted physical education may vary depending upon which form of the test is used.
Ken Pitetti, Ruth Ann Miller, and E. Michael Loovis
; and d. The participant performed the movement twice without prompting with the best score used for data analysis. Table 2 Items for Subtests of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency Subtest Item Title Units Range of Score Test Score Ceiling ULC 1 Dropping and catching ball—both hands
Eva D’Hondt, Fotini Venetsanou, Antonis Kambas, and Matthieu Lenoir
KörperKoordinations Test für Kinder (KTK; Kiphard & Schilling, 1974 , 2007 ), focusing on gross motor coordination but not evaluating any object control or fine motor skills. Accordingly, the Short Form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2 SF; Bruininks & Bruininks, 2005
Ken Pitetti, Ruth Ann Miller, and Michael Loovis
Children and adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) exhibit a mixture of cognitive, motor, and psychosocial limitation. Identifying specific inadequacies in motor proficiency in youth with ID would improve therapeutic management to enhance functional capacity and health-related physical activity. The purpose of this study was to initiate descriptive data collection of gross motor skills of youth with ID and compare those skills with competency norms. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2) was used to measure 6 items for balance (BAL), 5 items for upper limb coordination (ULC), and 6 items for bilateral coordination (BLC) of 123 males (ages 8–18) with ID but without Down syndrome. The authors performed 2,840 assessments (10–32 for each item); 944, 985, and 913 for BAL, ULC, and BLC, respectively. Mean scores for all age groups for BAL, ULC, and BLC were consistently below BOT-2 criteria. Overall motor skills of males with ID are below the competence expected for children and adolescents without disabilities.
Fabio Bertapelli, Ken Pitetti, Ruth A. Miller, Adam Jaeger, Michael Loovis, Wilson D. do Amaral-Junior, Marcos M. de Barros-Filho, and Gil Guerra-Junior
the Bruininks–Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2, for ages 4–21 years; Bruininks & Bruininks, 2005 ). Studies that used the TGMD-2 included youth with ID from Belgium, Finland, Hong Kong, The Netherlands, Philippines, and South Korea ( Capio et al., 2016 ; Eguia et al., 2015 ; Foley et
Zeinab Khodaverdi, Abbas Bahram, Hassan Khalaji, Anoshirvan Kazemnejad, Farhad Ghadiri, and Wesley O’Brien
, 2016 ); Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2 Short Form [SF]; Bruininks & Bruininks, 2005 ); Körperkoordinationtest Für Kinder (KTK; Kiphard & Schilling, 1974 , 2007b ); and Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2). Although these tools are used for
Katherine J. Riggen, Dale A. Ulrich, and John C. Ozmun
The reliability and concurrent validity of the Test of Motor Impairment-Henderson Revision was evaluated employing a sample of preschoolers. Absolute reliability of the final test score was established by calculating the standard error of measurement (SEM). An SEM of .86 was obtained. The consistency of decisions related to motor impairment or nonimpairment was estimated by calculating the proportion of agreement index across two testing occasions and Kappa. A 90% agreement was obtained with Kappa equal to .71. Concurrent validity using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form as the criterion resulted in an 88% agreement between the two tests.
Geoffrey D. Broadhead and Gable E. Church
Intact classes of mentally retarded and nonhandicapped children were administered the Physical Dexterity scales of the System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment and the short form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency. Separate discriminant analyses of each data set revealed that the subjects comprised four distinct levels of motor performance. Although overall predicted correct classification was above 65%, misclassifications occurred in each class. Differences resulting from the separate analyses suggest differential program placement for physical education. There is a tendency for the Physical Dexterity data to predict higher levels of motor functioning than the Motor Proficiency data for half of the mentally retarded children.
Melvin Ibana and Priscila Caçola
Handwriting is a core deficit in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Fifty children were tested with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition; Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Short Form; Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting (ETCH); McMaster Handwriting Assessment Protocol; and Beery-Buktenica Test of Visual–Motor Integration (Beery–VMI–6). The results showed significant differences in components of the ETCH between groups (p < .05) and significant relationships between handwriting (ETCH and Beery–VMI–6) and motor ability measures (r > .30). We conclude that the ETCH and the Beery–VMI–6 are sensitive measures of handwriting ability for children with probable DCD, but more research is needed to identify a gold-standard assessment for evaluating handwriting in this population.