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Brandonn S. Harris and Jack C. Watson II

The utility of Deci and Ryan’s self-determination theory (1985) and Coakley’s unidimensional identity model (1992) has yet to be adequately assessed in understanding youth athlete burnout. This may be due to a lack of measures available to assess these relevant constructs in a youth athlete sample. Having such inventories would likely enhance practitioners’ ability to identify, prevent, and treat this phenomenon more effectively in young children. Therefore, the current study assessed the psychometric properties for modified burnout, motivation, and athletic identity inventories for a youth athlete sample. Participants included 88 youth swimmers ranging in age from 7 to 12 years, who completed measures assessing burnout, motivation, and athletic identity. Internal consistencies and exploratory factor analyses provided preliminary psychometric support for the use and continued evaluation of these revised measures with young athletes.

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Ralph Appleby, Paul Davis, Louise Davis, and Henrik Gustafsson

associated with competition, organizational demands, and interpersonal relationships ( Chan, Londsdale, & Fung, 2012 ; Lu et al., 2016 ). Although stress is widely acknowledged to be an inherent aspect of competitive sport, research indicates that chronic stress can lead to the development of burnout

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Peter Olusoga, Marte Bentzen, and Goran Kentta

Burnout is most often described as “an enduring experiential syndrome” ( Maslach & Jackson, 1986 ) with three central characteristics: emotional exhaustion (a feeling of being overwhelmed and emotionally depleted by work), depersonalisation (a cynical attitude towards, or withdrawal from, personal

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Jeffrey B. Ruser, Mariya A. Yukhymenko-Lescroart, Jenelle N. Gilbert, Wade Gilbert, and Stephanie D. Moore

gratitude and athlete burnout; the positive relationships with team, sport, and life satisfaction ( Chen & Kee, 2008 ; Gabana et al., 2017 ); and the decreased rates of burnout after systematically cultivating gratitude among athletes ( Gabana, Steinfeldt, Wong, Chung, & Svetina, 2019 ). The purpose of

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J.D. DeFreese and Alan L. Smith

Athlete burnout is a maladaptive psychological syndrome characterized by emotional and physical exhaustion (i.e., emotional/physical fatigue from sport demands), reduced sense of accomplishment (i.e., inefficacy and a tendency for negative sport-based self-evaluation), and sport devaluation (i

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Sebastian Altfeld, Paul Schaffran, Jens Kleinert, and Michael Kellmann

emotionally exhausted and burnt out. For instance, even prominent coaches like NFL Coach Bobby Ross ( Freeman, 2000 ) or former soccer coach Ralf Ragnick ( Bartens, Kielbassa, & Kneer, 2011 ) reported that they were unable to fulfil their coaching tasks due to burnout syndrome. In regards to the impact on

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Esmie P. Smith, Andrew P. Hill, and Howard K. Hall

some it can be experienced as unsupportive and marginalizing ( Roderick, 2006 ). In the hope of better safeguarding junior athletes from the potential negative consequences of pursuing a career in soccer, the current study examined burnout and depressive symptoms among junior athletes attending youth

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Robin S. Vealey, Eric Martin, Angela Coppola, Rose Marie Ward, and Jacob Chamberlin

a price. The coaching environment emphasizes constant interpersonal interactions along with high performance expectations, which may lead to stress and burnout ( McNeill, Durand-Bush, & Lemyre, 2017 ; Thelwell, Weston, Greenless, & Hutchings, 2008 ). Such stress and burnout can lead to coaches

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Markus Gerber, Simon Best, Fabienne Meerstetter, Sandrine Isoard-Gautheur, Henrik Gustafsson, Renzo Bianchi, Daniel J. Madigan, Flora Colledge, Sebastian Ludyga, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, and Serge Brand

 al., 2013 ). Moreover, previous research has shown that exposure to chronic stress increases athletes’ likelihood of reporting overtraining ( Kenttä & Hassmen, 2002 ), overuse injuries ( Oyen, Klungland Torstveit, & Sundgot-Borgen, 2009 ), and burnout symptoms ( Cresswell & Eklund, 2006 ). In youth sport

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Robert T. Pearson, Timothy Baghurst, and Mwarumba Mwavita

). Coaching at the intercollegiate level is tenuous at best, and the many expectations of the profession may lead to stress and eventually burnout ( Kelley & Baghurst, 2009 ; Tashman, Tenenbaum, & Eklund, 2010 ). Stress occurs when the demands of a job or situation exceed an individual’s perceived