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Stanley S.C. Hui, Neil Thomas and Brian Tomlinson


The impact of physical activity, aerobic fitness, and body composition on coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in Hong Kong Chinese adults has not been previously investigated.


The study surveyed 707 randomly selected middle-age Hong Kong Chinese by telephone for Physical Activity Rating (PAR). Three hundred and sixteen respondents (age: 45.1 ± 8.1 y) participated in subsequent aerobic fitness testing (VO2max) and CHD risk factor screening.


More than 70% of respondents did not have sufficient levels of physical activity. Fifty percent of the men and 19.5% of the women had two or more CHD risk factors. PAR correlated poorly with VO2max and CHD risk factors. VO2max showed significant associations with CHD risk factors. The adjusted odds ratios of having CHD risk factors for unfit participants ranged from 1.11 to 6.61 as compared to fit participants. Obese but fit individuals demonstrated lower odds of CHD risk factors than the obese and unfit individuals. WC was found to be a stronger predictor for CHD risk factors than BMI.


The prevalence of CHD risk factors in middle-age Chinese in Hong Kong was high and was related to levels of aerobic fitness and obesity.

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Arja Sääkslahti, Pirkko Numminen, Harri Niinikoski, Leena Rask-Nissilä, Jorma Viikari, Juhani Tuominen and Ilkaa Välimäki

The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of physical activity (PA) during a single weekend to ascertain possible relationships between PA and anthropometry, fundamental motor skills, and CHD risk factors among 105 normal male and female children, aged 3–4 years. The children played, when awake, on the average for 14 hr, 16 min indoors and for 5 hr, 12 min outdoors of which low activity playing accounted about 4 hr. Notable gender differences were observed in the intensity of PA but not in fundamental motor skills and CHD risk factors. The results suggest that physical activity is weakly related to fundamental motor skills and CHD risk factors at an early age. The association between PA and body size was modified by gender (p = .024): The girls who played indoors a lot were heavier than the others, and the boys who played much more outdoors were heavier in relation to other boys. The associations between PA and motor skills as well as PA and CHD risk factors were also highly gender-dependent: The boys benefited from interacting with parents, while the girls benefited from independence. The most influential factors seemed to be the amount of playing outdoors, the amount of high level play activities, as well as interaction with parents.

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Daniela A. Rubin, Robert G. McMurray, Joanne S. Harrell, Barbara W. Carlson and Shrikant Bangdiwala

The purpose of this project was to determine the accuracy in lipids measurement and risk factor classification using Reflotron, Cholestech, and Ektachem DT-60 dry-chemistry analyzers. Plasma and capillary venous blood from fasting subjects (n = 47) were analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) using these analyzers and a CDC certified laboratory. Accuracy was evaluated by comparing the results of each portable analyzer against the CDC reference method. One-way ANOVAs were performed for TC, HDL-C, and TG between all portable analyzers and the reference method. Chi-square was used for risk classification (2001 NIH Guidelines). Compared to the reference method, the Ektachem and Reflotron provided significantly lower values for TC (p < .05). In addition, the Cholestech and Ektachem values for HDL-C were higher than the CDC (p < .05). The Reflotron and Cholestech provided higher values of TG than the CDC (p < .05). Chi-squares analyses for risk classification were not significant (p > .45) between analyzers. According to these results, the Ektachem and Cholestech analyzers met the current NCEP III guidelines for accuracy in measurement of TC, while only Ektachem met guidelines for TG. All 3 analyzers provided a good overall risk classification; however, values of HDL-C should be only used for screening purposes.

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Non-Eleri Thomas, Stephen-Mark Cooper, Simon P. Williams, Julien S. Baker and Bruce Davies

The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between aerobic fitness (AF), fatness, and coronary-heart-disease (CHD) risk factors in 12- to 13-year-olds. The data were obtained from 208 schoolchildren (100 boys; 108 girls) ages 12.9 ± 0.3 years. Measurements included AF, indices of obesity, blood pressure, blood lipids and lipoproteins, fibrinogen, homocysteine, and C-reactive protein. An inverse relationship was found between AF and fatness (p < .05). Fatness was related to a greater number of CHD risk factors than fitness was (p < .05). Further analysis revealed fatness to be an independent predictor of triglyceride and blood-pressure levels (p < .05). Our findings indicate that, for young people, fatness rather than fitness is independently related to CHD risk factors.

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Constantin Bouziotas, Yiannis Koutedakis, Ruth Shiner, Yiannis Pananakakis, Vasiliki Fotopoulou and Styliani Gara

The prevalence of 14 selected modifiable coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors was determined in randomly selected adolescent boys (n = 117) and girls (n = 93) from provincial Greece. Based on published criteria thresholds for CHD, 45% of boys and 50% of girls exhibited three or more risk factors with time spent on “vigorous” activities, low cardiorespiratory fitness and fatness being among the most frequent in both sexes. Stronger associations were found between cardiorespiratory fitness and time spent on “vigorous” rather than “moderate-to-vigorous” activities in both boys and girls. Regression analysis indicated that energy expenditure (P < .01) in boys and energy expenditure (P < .05) and energy intake (P < .01) in girls could alone explain about 60% of the body-fat related findings in either group. Broadly based primary prevention strategies aimed at children should concentrate on reducing the overall energy intake and increasing the time spent on “vigorous” activities if future Greek adult CHD mortality is to be reduced.

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Constantin Bouziotas and Yiannis Koutedakis

We examined the prevalence of 14 modifiable CHD risk factors in a sample of 210 provincial Greek children as they progressed from age 12 to 14. It was found that 46.2% of boys and 49.5% of girls (p > 0.05) exhibited three or more risk factors at their 12th year, with values of 42% for boys and 51.1% (p > 0.05) for girls for their 13th year, and 29.4% for boys and 55% (p < 0.001) for girls in their 14th year. Risk factors with the highest prevalence in both sexes included low vigorous physical activity, low aerobic fitness, and elevated body fatness. The fact that boys exhibited progressively fewer risk factors with age was mainly attributed to increased time spent on vigorous physical activity (P < 0.001) and higher predicted oxygen intake (P < 0.001) with a concomitant decrease in body fat (P < 0.001). The opposite pattern demonstrated by girls was primarily due to elevated predicted % body fat (P < 0.05), % saturated fat intake (P < 0.05), total cholesterol (TC; P < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; P < 0.001), and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)/TC; P < 0.001). In conclusion, a high percentage of young adolescent Greek boys and girls exhibit three or more modifiable CHD risk factors. However, as the children progress from age 12 to 14, gender differences emerge regarding the development of their CHD risk profiles. The present data support the notion that preventive strategies for combating CHD should begin early in life.

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* Gregory Kline * Donna Goff * Leslie Martel * Lisa Ferrone * 11 1999 11 4 317 326 10.1123/pes.11.4.317 Research Is Physical Activity Related to Body Size, Fundamental Motor Skills, and CHD Risk Factors in Early Childhood? Arja Sääkslahti * Pirkko Numminen * Harri Niinikoski Leena Rask

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Walking Ability in the Elderly Maija Hassinen * Pirjo Komulainen * Timo A. Lakka * Sari B. Väisänen * Rainer Rauramaa * 7 2005 2 2 3 3 298 298 306 306 10.1123/jpah.2.3.298 Relationship Between Physical Activity, Fitness, and CHD Risk Factors in Middle-Age Chinese Stanley S.C. Hui * Neil

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* 1 2006 3 1 112 123 10.1123/jpah.3.1.112 Age-Differences in GH Response to Exercise in Women: The Role of Fitness, BMI, and Insulin Lauren Gulka * James Dziura * Loretta DiPietro * 1 2006 3 1 124 134 10.1123/jpah.3.1.124 PCPFS Research Digest Physical Activity and Non-Traditional CHD Risk