This study explored first-, second-, and third-person effects related to the outcome of televised National Football League (NFL) games among an online sample of NFL fans (N = 646). Overall findings indicated that first-person and second-person perceptual biases were projected toward comparison groups that were labeled as fans of other NFL teams or as the average person. In addition, support was found for both first and second-person behavioral effects in the form of postgame Basking In Reflected Glory (BIRGing) and Cutting Off Reflected Failure (CORFing) behaviors. However, the strength of NFL fans’ team identification was a more robust predictor of these effects than NFL fans self-reported BIRGing/CORFing behaviors. These findings support the hypothesis that self-enhancement processes (i.e., BIRGing/CORFing) are usurped by self-categorization processes when a social identity is made salient (i.e., NFL team identification). Areas of future research and limitations are also addressed.
Jonathan A. Jensen, Brian A. Turner, Jeffrey James, Chad McEvoy, Chad Seifried, Elizabeth Delia, T. Christopher Greenwell, Stephen Ross and Patrick Walsh
Published 4 decades ago, “Basking in Reflected Glory: Three (Football) Field Studies” (Cialdini et al., 1976) is the most influential study of sport consumer behavior. This article features re-creations of Studies 1 and 2, exactly 40 years after the original publication. The results of Study 1 were reproduced, with participants more than twice as likely to wear school-affiliated apparel after wins and 55% less likely after losses. The study also extends the BIRGing literature in its investigation of the influence of gender and the effect’s salience over time. Study 2’s results were not reproduced. However, study participants were significantly more likely to use first-person plural pronouns, providing further empirical evidence of BIRGing behaviors. This article makes a novel contribution to the sport consumer behavior literature by advancing the study of one of the field’s most foundational theories and serving as an impetus for future investigations of BIRGing motivations.
Michelle Harrolle, Galen Trail, Ariel Rodriguez and Jeremy Jordan
The sport marketing field has neglected to study the Latino population despite escalating amounts of consumer research within the marketing literature focusing on this market segment. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to examine the potential predictors of conative loyalty (i.e., purchase intentions) of the Latino fan by testing the Model of Sport Spectator Conative Loyalty (Model B) on a Latino sample. In addition, we wanted to compare the relationships within the model between Latinos and Non-Latinos to study the potential differences between the two market segments. The participants were Latino (n = 127) and Non-Latino (n = 186) attendees of a professional Major League Baseball game in the Southeastern United States. Even though the model results were very similar for both groups, differences do exist between Latinos and Non-Latinos in terms of specific sport consumer behavior relationships (e.g., BIRGing and CORFing on Conative Loyalty).
Joerg Koenigstorfer, Andrea Groeppel-Klein and Marco Schmitt
This article reports results from a longitudinal field study examining the psychological processes underlying soccer fans’ loyalty toward their clubs and fans’ emotional states depending on the seasonal outcome of the clubs. We found that fans’ perceptions of three relationship strength indicators—satisfaction, self-connection, and intimate commitment—and the levels of basking in reflected glory (BIRGing) did not decrease and cutting off reflected failure (CORFing) did not increase when soccer clubs of the German Bundesliga were relegated to a lower division. The levels of BIRGing, self-connection, and intimate commitment in fact increased after this event, producing intense positive, negative, and mixed emotions in fans. The results support the notion that fandom is about expressing identity and attitude to life, sharing intimate details with the club, and standing by it, in both good and bad times. Thus fans and their clubs are strongly bound to each other.
Ben Larkin and Janet S. Fink
-off-reflected-failure (CORFing), derogating, maintaining biased perceptions, and so forth. It is important to note, however, that coping strategies are not always positive or harmless, as in the case of the aforementioned techniques. Rather, the coping techniques of some fans can often be hostile, antagonistic, and reflect
Yonghwan Chang, Daniel L. Wann and Yuhei Inoue
, categorization processes, and self-esteem in sports spectator aggression . Human Relations, 45 , 1013 – 1033 . doi:10.1177/001872679204501001 10.1177/001872679204501001 Campbell , R.M. , Jr. , Aiken , D. , & Kent , A. ( 2004 ). Beyond BIRGing and CORFing: Continuing the exploration of fan behavior
Jan Haut, Freya Gassmann, Eike Emrich, Tim Meyer and Christian Pierdzioch
.1080/13216597.2015.1106961 Campbell , R.M. , Aiken , D. , & Kent , A. ( 2004 ). Beyond BIRGing and CORFing: Continuing the Exploration of Fan Behavior . Sport Marketing Quarterly, 13 ( 3 ), 151 – 157 . Chalip , L.B. , Green , C. , Taks , M. , & Misener , L. ( 2016 ). Creating sport participation from sport events
Zachary W. Arth, Darrin J. Griffin and Andrew C. Billings
BIRGing and CORFing tendencies . Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 14 , 103 – 117 . doi:10.1177/019372359001400203 10.1177/019372359001400203 Wanta , W. ( 2013 ). Reflections on communication and sport: On reporting and journalists . Communication & Sport, 1 , 76 – 87 . doi:10
Jun Woo Kim, Marshall Magnusen and Hyun-Woo Lee
exhibit more positive emotions (e.g., pleased, happy, energetic, and confident) than sport consumers with lower levels of identification when their favorite team was unsuccessful (i.e., highly identified sport consumers refuse to cut off reflected failure or CORF). Since the work of Wann and other sport
Wonseok Jang, Yong Jae Ko, Daniel L. Wann and Daehwan Kim
-hard and fair-weather fans: Effects of identification on BIRGing and CORFing tendencies . Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 14 ( 2 ), 103 – 117 . doi: 10.1177/019372359001400203 Wann , D.L. , & Branscombe , N.R. ( 1993 ). Sports fans: Measuring degree of identification with their team