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Gregory B. Dwyer and Anthony D. Mahon

Little is known about the responses to graded exercise in athletes with cerebral palsy (CP). This study compared the ventilatory threshold (VT) and peak VO2 among athletes with CP during treadmill and cycle ergometry exercise. Six (4 men, 2 women) track athletes with CP volunteered to participate in the study. Graded exercise tests on a treadmill and cycle ergometer were performed on separate days to assess VT and peak VO2. Paired t tests were used to compare the two exercise modes. The VT, expressed as a percentage of peak VO2, was significantly higher on the cycle ergometer than on the treadmill. The absolute VO2 at the VT was similar during both testing modes, and peak VO2 was significantly higher on the treadmill than on the cycle ergometer. Similar to responses seen in able-bodied individuals, the VO2 at VT was similar during both modes of exercise, while the peak VO2 was 10% lower on the cycle than on the treadmill. Cycle ergometer peak VO2 in these athletes was higher than previous reports of individuals with CP for the cycle ergometer.

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Dominique van Roon, Bert Steenbergen, and Ruud G.J. Meulenbroek

People with cerebral palsy (CP) are known to rely heavily on visual guidance when making targeted upper-limb movements. In the present study, we examined whether being able to visually monitor the moving limb forms a precondition for people with CP to make accurate upper-limb movements. Eight participants with tetraparetic CP and eight controls were asked to produce large-amplitude, straight-line drawing movements on a digitizing tablet. In half the trials, vision of the moving limb was blocked. Accuracy constraints were manipulated by varying the width of the target and by imposing a maximum width of the movement path. Surprisingly, when vision was blocked movement accuracy was comparable in the two groups. Thus, people with tetraparetic CP do not strictly require constant vision of their moving limb to make accurate upper-limb movements. They compensated for the lack of visual information, however, by prolonging movement time. Using a high pen force proved a general strategic adaptation, possibly to filter out unwanted noise from the motor system or to enhance proprioceptive input.

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Jason C. Bartram, Dominic Thewlis, David T. Martin, and Kevin I. Norton


New applications of the critical-power concept, such as the modeling of intermittent-work capabilities, are exciting prospects for elite cycling. However, accurate calculation of the required parameters is traditionally time invasive and somewhat impractical. An alternative single-test protocol (3-min all-out) has recently been proposed, but validation in an elite population is lacking. The traditional approach for parameter establishment, but with fewer tests, could also prove an acceptable compromise.


Six senior Australian endurance track-cycling representatives completed 6 efforts to exhaustion on 2 separate days over a 3-wk period. These included 1-, 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-min self-paced efforts, plus the 3-min all-out protocol. Traditional work-vs-time calculations of CP and anaerobic energy contribution (W′) using the 5 self-paced efforts were compared with calculations from the 3-min all-out protocol. The impact of using just 2 or 3 self-paced efforts for traditional CP and W′ estimation was also explored using thresholds of agreement (8 W, 2.0 kJ, respectively).


CP estimated from the 3-min all-out approach was significantly higher than from the traditional approach (402 ± 33, 351 ± 27 W, P < .001), while W′ was lower (15.5 ± 3.0, 24.3 ± 4.0 kJ, P = .02). Five different combinations of 2 or 3 self-paced efforts led to CP estimates within the threshold of agreement, with only 1 combination deemed accurate for W′.


In elite cyclists the 3-min all-out approach is not suitable to estimate CP when compared with the traditional method. However, reducing the number of tests used in the traditional method lessens testing burden while maintaining appropriate parameter accuracy.

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Jason C. Bartram, Dominic Thewlis, David T. Martin, and Kevin I. Norton

The hyperbolic relationship between maximal work rate and duration in humans was first described by A.V. Hill in 1925. 1 Approximately 40 years later, the concept was given a mathematical framework and became the critical power (CP) model. 2 Now commonly used today, the model describes a subject

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Thomas Nikodelis, Dimitra Moscha, Dimitris Metaxiotis, and Iraklis Kollias

To investigate what sampling frequency is adequate for gait, the correlation of spatiotemporal parameters and the kinematic differences, between normal and CP spastic gait, for three sampling frequencies (100 Hz, 50 Hz, 25 Hz) were assessed. Spatiotemporal, angular, and linear displacement variables in the sagittal plane along with their 1st and 2nd derivatives were analyzed. Spatiotemporal stride parameters were highly correlated among the three sampling frequencies. The statistical model (2 × 3 ANOVA) gave no interactions between the factors group and frequency, indicating that group differences were invariant of sampling frequency. Lower frequencies led to smoother curves for all the variables, with a loss of information though, especially for the 2nd derivatives, having a homologous effect as the one of oversmoothing. It is proposed that in the circumstance that only spatiotemporal stride parameters, as well as angular and linear displacements are to be used, in gait reports, then commercial video camera speeds (25/30 Hz, 50/60 Hz when deinterlaced) can be considered as a low-cost solution to produce acceptable results.

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Jens Bangsbo, Fedon Marcello Iaia, and Peter Krustrup

The physical demands in soccer have been studied intensively, and the aim of the present review is to provide an overview of metabolic changes during a game and their relation to the development of fatigue. Heart-rate and body-temperature measurements suggest that for elite soccer players the average oxygen uptake during a match is around 70% of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max). A top-class player has 150 to 250 brief intense actions during a game, indicating that the rates of creatine-phosphate (CP) utilization and glycolysis are frequently high during a game, which is supported by findings of reduced muscle CP levels and several-fold increases in blood and muscle lactate concentrations. Likewise, muscle pH is lowered and muscle inosine monophosphate (IMP) elevated during a soccer game. Fatigue appears to occur temporarily during a game, but it is not likely to be caused by elevated muscle lactate, lowered muscle pH, or change in muscle-energy status. It is unclear what causes the transient reduced ability of players to perform maximally. Muscle glycogen is reduced by 40% to 90% during a game and is probably the most important substrate for energy production, and fatigue toward the end of a game might be related to depletion of glycogen in some muscle fibers. Blood glucose and catecholamines are elevated and insulin lowered during a game. The blood free-fatty-acid levels increase progressively during a game, probably reflecting an increasing fat oxidation compensating for the lowering of muscle glycogen. Thus, elite soccer players have high aerobic requirements throughout a game and extensive anaerobic demands during periods of a match leading to major metabolic changes, which might contribute to the observed development of fatigue during and toward the end of a game.

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M. Travis Byrd, Jonathan Robert Switalla, Joel E. Eastman, Brian J. Wallace, Jody L. Clasey, and Haley C. Bergstrom

The critical-power (CP) (and critical force) test of Monod and Scherrer involved dynamic, intermittent, static, and continuous muscle actions for isolated movements of synergic muscle groups including the forearm flexors, forearm extensors, and leg flexors. 1 This test involves local muscle work

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Flavio A. Cadegiani, Pedro Henrique L. Silva, Tatiana C.P. Abrao, and Claudio E. Kater

Purposes: Overtraining syndrome (OTS) is an unexplained underperformance syndrome triggered by excessive training, insufficient caloric intake, inadequate sleep, and excessive cognitive and social demands. Investigation of the recovery process from OTS has not been reported to date. The objective was to unveil novel markers and biochemical and clinical behaviors during the restoration process of OTS. Methods: This was a 12-week interventional protocol in 12 athletes affected by OTS, including increase of caloric intake, transitory interruption of training, improvement of sleep quality, and management of stress, followed by the assessment of 50 parameters including basal and hormonal responses to an insulin tolerance test and nonhormonal biochemical markers, and body metabolism and composition. Results: Early cortisol (P = .023), late ACTH (adrenocorticotrophic hormone) (P = .024), and early and late growth hormone (P = .005 and P = .038, respectively) responses, basal testosterone (P = .038), testosterone:estradiol ratio (P = .0005), insulinlike growth factor 1 (P = .004), cortisol awakening response (P = .001), and free thyronine (P = .069) increased, while basal estradiol (P = .033), nocturnal urinary catecholamines (P = .038), and creatine kinase (P = .071) reduced. Conversely, markers of body metabolism and composition had slight nonsignificant improvements. Conclusion: After a 12-week intervention, athletes affected by actual OTS disclosed a mix of non-, partial, and full recovery processes, demonstrating that remission of OTS is as complex as its occurrence.

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Christina C.P. Cepeda, Angélica Lodovico, Neil Fowler, and André L.F. Rodacki

Aging is related to a progressive remodeling of the neuromuscular system, which includes muscle mass, strength, and power reductions. This study investigated the effect of an eight-week dance program on fascicle pennation angle, fascicle length, and thickness of the vastus lateralis (VL), tibialis anterior (TA), biceps femoris (BF), and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscles using ultrasound images. Thirty-four healthy older women were randomly assigned to either a dancing (DG: n = 19, 69.1 ± 6.5 years, 72.5 ± 11.7 kg) or control group (CG: n = 15, 71.5 ± 7.4 years, 70.9 ± 9.3 kg). After training, the DG showed greater (p < .05) thickness for VL (16%), TA (17%), BF (19%), and GM (15%); pennation angle for VL (21%), TA (23%), BF (21%), and GM (17%); and fascicle length for VL (11%), TA (12%), BF (10%), and GM (10%). These findings suggest that dance training was effective to change the lower limb muscle architecture in older female adults.

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Alif Laila Tisha, Ashley Allison Armstrong, Amy Wagoner Johnson, and Citlali López-Ortiz

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a nonprogressive neurological disorder, commonly diagnosed at birth, which causes abnormal muscle activity and coordination. There are approximately 764,000 children and adults with CP in the United States today, with one in 300 newborns diagnosed with CP. 1 Despite the