This paper sought to examine the stakeholder network governance structures of two international and two domestic multisports events focusing on (a) exploring the structural connectedness of these networks and (b) illuminating powerful stakeholders vis-à-vis centrality and the ability to control the network’s flow. An exploratory, comparative case study design was built by means of 58 interviews and 550 archival materials. Findings highlight international sports events are sparsely connected networks with power concentrated in the organizing committee, government, and venue stakeholders, who broker coordination with other stakeholders. In contrast, domestic sport event organizing committees appear more decentralized as coordinating actors: Sport organizations, sponsors, and community-based stakeholders emerged as highly connected, powerful stakeholders. Domestic event governance decentralization highlights a potential imbalance in stakeholder interests through network flow control by multiple actors, while the governments’ centrality in international events demonstrates not only mode-dependent salience but also visibility/reputational risks and jurisdictional responsibilities-based salience.
Michael L. Naraine, Jessie Schenk, and Milena M. Parent
Peter R.E. Crocker, Rikk B. Alderman, F. Murray, and R. Smith
Cognitive-Affective Stress Management Training (SMT) is a coping skills training program designed to help athletes control dysfunctional stress processes (Smith, 1980). The present quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of SMT on affect, cognition, and performance in high performance youth volleyball players. Members of Alberta's Canada Games men's and women's (under 19 years of age) volleyball teams were assigned to either an experimental treatment group or a waiting-list control group. The treatment program consisted of eight modules, approximately 1 week apart, that allowed subjects to learn and apply somatic and cognitive coping skills. The results indicated that the treatment group emitted fewer negative thoughts in response to videotaped stressors and had superior service reception performance in a controlled practice compared to the control group. There were no interpretable differences between groups for either state anxiety (CSAI-2) or trait anxiety (SCAT). The cognitive and performance measures provided converging support for Smith's program. The results are discussed in terms of coping skills training, theoretical issues regarding the measurement of anxiety, and possible affect-cognition system independence.
Emily K. Romano, Kyle A. Rich, and Dennis Quesnel
The Canada Games first began in 1967, in Quebec City, and continues to host the “highest level of national competition for up-and-coming Canadian athletes” ( Canada Games, 2019 , para. 2). The Games seek to contribute to both sport development in Canada and lasting legacies of community pride and
Jonathon Edwards, Diane Culver, Ross Leadbetter, Kate Kloos, and Luke Potwarka
provincial level have the necessary certification or training to coach at the Canada Games (Canada’s version of the Olympics). Management Stage The management stage draws on the work of Babiak and Thibault ( 2009 ), and Parent and Harvey ( 2009 ), and examines the management factors and challenges associated
Diane M. Culver, Erin Kraft, Cari Din, and Isabelle Cayer
engagement • Third GENC meeting: Vancouver, BC February 2019 • Knowledge transfer opportunity at the Canada Games in Red Deer, Alberta April 2019 • Fourth GENC meeting and poster presentation CoP Webinar: Introduction to the program evaluation May 2018 • In person practical session on program evaluations
Diane M. Culver, Penny Werthner, and Pierre Trudel
Associations, the Multi-Sport Organisations (e.g., the Canada Games), 67 National Sport Organisations, the Provincial/Territorial Coaching Representatives, and Sport Canada. The CAC, as the leader of the NCCP, has to negotiate with these partners. For Cushion, Armour, and Jones ( 2003 ) this “becomes a
Kyle Paquette, Pierre Trudel, Tiago Duarte, and Glenn Cundari
get certified to be able to coach my athletes at the upcoming Canada Games”. Despite the program being designed to support learning, these coaches are likely going to return home and rush through the evaluation process with little to no intention of retaining or implementing any information moving