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Morgan N. Clennin and Russell R. Pate

Strong evidence suggests that cardiorespiratory fitness is a powerful marker of health in youth and is associated with cardiometabolic health in adulthood. 1 – 5 Unfortunately, cardiorespiratory fitness levels in youth have declined steadily over the past 3 decades. 2 , 6 , 7 In the United States

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Natalie Frost, Michael Weinborn, Gilles E. Gignac, Shaun Markovic, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Hamid R. Sohrabi, Ralph N. Martins, Jeremiah J. Peiffer and Belinda M. Brown

cardiorespiratory fitness that is the strongest protective factor. Executive Functioning, Physical Activity, and Fitness Executive functions are defined as higher level control processes that coordinate other cognitive abilities ( Miyake et al., 2000 ). Within the literature, five subdomains of executive function

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Ryan P. Durk, Esperanza Castillo, Leticia Márquez-Magaña, Gregory J. Grosicki, Nicole D. Bolter, C. Matthew Lee and James R. Bagley

the best of our knowledge, no study has examined if F/B is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, as assessed by maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max), independent from dietary or anthropometric measures. The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify potential relationships among relative

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Leanna M. Ross, Jacob L. Barber, Alexander C. McLain, R. Glenn Weaver, Xuemei Sui, Steven N. Blair and Mark A. Sarzynski

Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is well established as having a strong association with mortality and numerous CVD risk factors. 4 Despite the strong associations between CRF and each individual component of LS7, few studies have examined the independent association of CRF and ideal CVH score. Recently, Ruiz et

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Greg Doncaster, John Iga and Viswanath Unnithan

maturation with respect to detailed measures of cardiorespiratory fitness in highly trained youth soccer players. Moreover, recent research has highlighted the importance of appropriate scaling to successfully accommodate the nonlinear relationship between body size descriptors and peak oxygen uptake (VO 2

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Ítalo Ribeiro Lemes, Xuemei Sui, Stacy L. Fritz, Paul F. Beattie, Carl J. Lavie, Bruna Camilo Turi-Lynch and Steven N. Blair

conditions may have significantly reduced life expectancy. Higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter referred to as fitness) are widely known to be associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, 11 cardiovascular disease (CVD), 12 , 13 stroke, 14 cancer mortality, 15 , 16 and all

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Baruch Vainshelboim, Zhongming Chen, Ricardo M. Lima and Jonathan Myers

risk of cancer, 1 – 5 , 7 , 8 most smokers do not develop cancer and, thus, there are factors other than smoking that influence risk. 4 , 9 – 11 Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an established risk factor for the development of many chronic conditions, and it is strongly associated with all

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Patrick B. Wilson

Background:

Psoriasis confers risk for cardiometabolic disorders. Cardiorespiratory fitness is inversely associated with risk of cardiometabolic disorders in other populations, but limited data have been published assessing cardiorespiratory fitness among individuals with psoriasis. This investigation aimed to: 1) assess cardiorespiratory fitness among individuals with psoriasis in the general population; and 2) compare levels to individuals without psoriasis.

Methods:

A secondary data analysis from the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey was performed. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed with a treadmill test, while measures of psoriasis severity included rating of psoriasis as a life problem and body surface area involvement.

Results:

Twenty-six of 1093 participants reported a psoriasis diagnosis (population weighted prevalence 2.9%). Individuals with psoriasis had lower cardiorespiratory fitness compared with individuals without psoriasis (36.2 vs. 39.1 mL∙kg-1∙min-1, P = .009). No differences in self-reported or accelerometer physical activity were found by psoriasis diagnosis. Cardiorespiratory fitness was not significantly lower in those reporting high life impairment or body surface area involvement.

Conclusions:

Cardiorespiratory fitness may be lower in individuals with psoriasis and these differences may not be explained by self-reported disease severity measures or physical activity. Future studies should examine whether validated measures of psoriasis severity predict lower cardiorespiratory fitness.

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Laura S. Kabiri, Katy Mitchell, Wayne Brewer and Alexis Ortiz

Purpose:

The growth and unregulated structure of homeschooling creates an unknown population in regard to muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness. The purpose of this research was to compare muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness between elementary school aged homeschool and public school children.

Method:

Homeschool children ages 8–11 years old (n = 75) completed the curl-up, 90° push-up, and Progressive Aerobic Capacity Endurance Run (PACER) portions of the FitnessGram to assess abdominal and upper body strength and endurance as well as cardiorespiratory fitness. Comparisons to public school children (n = 75) were made using t tests and chi-square tests.

Results:

Homeschool children showed significantly lower abdominal (t(148) = -11.441, p < .001; χ2 (1) = 35.503, p < .001) and upper body (t(148) = -3.610, p < .001; χ2 (1) = 4.881, p = .027) strength and endurance. There were no significant differences in cardiorespiratory fitness by total PACER laps (t(108) = 0.879, p = .381) or estimated VO2max (t(70) = 1.187, p = .239; χ2 (1) = 1.444, p = .486).

Conclusion:

Homeschool children showed significantly lower levels of both abdominal and upper body muscular fitness compared with their age and gender matched public school peers but no difference in cardiorespiratory fitness.

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Diane E. Butterworth, David C. Nieman, Bruce C. Underwood and Kristian D. Lindsied

This study evaluated the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, and dietary quality in a group of 20- to 40-year-old women (n = 34) who varied widely in levels of physical activity. Nutrient intakes were determined using 10 repeated 24-hr diet records, randomly assigned, over a 10-week period, Physical activity was determined on the same randomly assigned days using the Caltrac Personal Activity Computer. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by two maximal graded treadmill tests with continuous metabolic monitoring at both the beginning and end of the 10-week period. Neither physical activity nor cardiorespiratory fitness was significantly correlated with nutrient density (nutrient/1,000 kcal). Intake of energy (kcal/kg body weight) was higher for the more physically active and fit women, leading to a significant increase in most nutrients consumed per kilogram of body weight.