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Paul F.J. Merkes, Paolo Menaspà and Chris R. Abbiss

However, studies have also shown that peak power output is not the only important factor to success. 2 Indeed, a cyclist’s velocity is likely to be a much more important factor in the outcome of road cycling sprints. Cycling velocity is the result of power output, aerodynamic drag (CdA), road

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Kyle Paquette and Pierre Trudel

research and the practice of coach development administrators (CDAs), Trudel, Culver, & Werthner ( 2013 , p. 385) noted, “the criticisms received by CDAs regarding the limits of their coach education programs are rarely accompanied with concrete suggestions on what they can do to impact positively the

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Tiago M. Barbosa, Jorge E. Morais, Mário J. Costa, José Goncalves, Daniel A. Marinho and António J. Silva

The aim of this article has been to classify swimmers based on kinematics, hydrodynamics, and anthropometrics. Sixty-seven young swimmers made a maximal 25 m front-crawl to measure with a speedometer the swimming velocity (v), speed-fluctuation (dv) and dv normalized to v (dv/v). Another two 25 m bouts with and without carrying a perturbation device were made to estimate active drag coefficient (CD a). Trunk transverse surface area (S) was measured with photogrammetric technique on land and in the hydrodynamic position. Cluster 1 was related to swimmers with a high speed fluctuation (ie, dv and dv/v), cluster 2 with anthropometrics (ie, S) and cluster 3 with a high hydrodynamic profile (ie, CD a). The variable that seems to discriminate better the clusters was the dv/v (F = 53.680; P < .001), followed by the dv (F = 28.506; P < .001), CD a (F = 21.025; P < .001), S (F = 6.297; P < .01) and v (F = 5.375; P = .01). Stepwise discriminant analysis extracted 2 functions: Function 1 was mainly defined by dv/v and S (74.3% of variance), whereas function 2 was mainly defined by CD a (25.7% of variance). It can be concluded that kinematics, hydrodynamics and anthropometrics are determinant domains in which to classify and characterize young swimmers’ profiles.

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Erik Spring, Sauli Savolainen, Jari Erkkilä, Tuomo Hämäläinen and Pekka Pihkala

The drag area CDA of three male cross-country skiers as a function of their velocity was determined from their retardation when they were gliding on roller-skis over a horizontal smooth asphalt surface in a subway. The results show that CDA is a slightly decreasing function of the skier’s velocity in the velocity range 5–11 m/s. The drag area of a skier was found to be 0.27 ± 0.03 m2 in a semi-squatting posture and 0.65 ± 0.05 m2 in an upright posture for an average size skier (weight 80 kg, height 1.75 m). The difference in the drag area between a normal outdoor suit and a tight-fitting ski suit was found to be as much as 30%. A skier keeping pace with a skier ahead will gain a reduction in drag of about 25 %. The leading skier in this study was found to have his drag reduced by approximately 3 % compared to what it would be if there were no skier pacing up with him. The skier behind hinders the skier ahead from generating to a full extent the vortexes behind himself or herself. These reductions are of course strongly dependent on the distance between the skiers.

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Kyle Paquette and Pierre Trudel

development administrators (CDAs) due to their role in supporting coach development. With respect to their demographics, the CDAs ranged in age from 27 to 70 years ( M  = 47.3), had all obtained post-secondary education at a college or university, and had amassed substantial and diverse experiences in sport

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Paul F.J. Merkes, Paolo Menaspà and Chris R. Abbiss

with the hands in the drops. However, other variables like seated and standing, head high or low, or elbows tucked or not were not controlled. These small changes in riding position are likely to affect aerodynamic drag (product of drag coefficient [Cd] and frontal area [A]: CdA). 18 – 22 The Velocomp

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Chen Chen and Daniel S. Mason

analysis (CDA) approach. Highlighting the connection between language and social–institutional practices, CDA examines the social relations of power that constitute, and are constituted by, discourse ( Fairclough, 2003 ; Van Dijk, 1993 ). Though originating from linguistic studies, CDA is not concerned

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Lesley Ferkins, James Skinner and Steve Swanson

networks recognizes the multiple interactions of leadership. Chen and Mason Leadership in non-Western contexts; postcolonial theory CDA Concerned that a heavy reliance on Western theories provides prescriptive solutions in non-Western contexts. The adoption of theoretical frameworks developed in the West

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Timothy J. Walker, Jessica M. Tullar, Pamela M. Diamond, Harold W. Kohl III and Benjamin C. Amick III

.1097/01.jom.0000158719.57957.c6 15824625 14. Fonseca VR , Nobre MRC , Pronk NP , Santos LA . The association between physical activity, productivity, and health care utilization among employees in Brazil . J Occup Environ Med. 2010 ; 52 ( 7 ): 706 – 712 . PubMed doi:10.1097/JOM.0b013e3181e41cda

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Mindy Patterson, Wanyi Wang and Alexis Ortiz

. Interestingly, this study reports a novel finding that dietary fiber from DHQ II predicted EE from DLW in females only. IDATA Methodology Population The Interactive Diet and Activity Tracking in American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), or IDATA study ( https://biometry.nci.nih.gov/cdas