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Under Surveillance: Collegiate Athletics as a Total Institution

Sarah J. Hatteberg

, 2013 ; Southall & Weiler, 2014 ). Nevertheless, few studies have empirically examined how collegiate athletics might approximate a total institution across different sporting contexts (e.g., men’s and women’s, profit-generating and equivalency sports). Using data collected from a purposive quota

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A Rare injury in Collegiate Athletics—The Lisfranc Fracture-Dislocation

Keith M. Gorse, Graham Johnstone, and Jennifer Cruse

A rare injury in collegiate athletics is the Lisfranc fracture-dislocation of the foot. This case study will give team physicians and athletic trainers an idea of what to look for in this type of injury. It will be shown how an 18-year-old college football player received the injury, how it was evaluated by the sports medicine staff, and how it was surgically treated by the team physician. Finally, the athlete's rehabilitation will be summarized and the time frame during which full activities were started again will be outlined. This case study will give sports medicine specialists a better understanding of the Lisfranc topic and how to deal with it.

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A New Collegiate Model: Intra-Collegiate Athletics at BYU Idaho

Erianne A. Weight, Barbara Osborne, and Robert Turner

Aaron Kelly, a highly respected college sport consultant, is charged with the task of presenting a new model of intercollegiate athletic administration to a panel of leaders in the field. Coincidence and research led him to a successful National Junior College Athletic Association athletic program that was discontinued in pursuit of a new model of competitive intra-collegiate athletics when the institution transitioned to a four-year university. Given the purpose of athletics within the academe to facilitate an educational experience difficult to replicate through any other opportunity, (Brand, 2006; NCAA 2010; Rader, 1999) this program sheds light on a new way to view this tradition we have come to know as college sport. The purpose of this case is to highlight the tremendous potential for innovation that exists within the intercollegiate athletic model. While financial challenges make it difficult for many institutions to sponsor broad-based intercollegiate athletics programs, this model presents a design that can reduce expenditures and provide additional participation opportunities for education through athletics. As Kelly prepares for his presentation, he questions whether this model is ideal and how the landscape of intercollegiate athletics might be affected if implemented on a national scale.

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Greening Our Front Porch: Environmental Sustainability in Collegiate Athletics

Jamee A. Pelcher and Brian P. McCullough

integration of sustainability throughout collegiate athletics, there are still immense barriers in the form of limited human and financial resources that have prevented many institutions from embracing sustainability. Fortunately, the successful examples of collegiate athletic departments’ sustainability

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Psychometric Properties of a Modified Athlete Burnout Questionnaire in the Collegiate Athletics Setting

Madeline P. Casanova, Ashley J. Reeves, and Russell T. Baker

Context: Mental health is an important component of holistic care in athletic settings. Burnout is one of many factors associated with poor mental health, and clinicians should assess for these symptoms. The Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ) has been proposed as a measure of burnout in athletes; however, design concerns are prevalent within the scale, and psychometric analyses have resulted in inconsistent measurement properties, limiting the usefulness of the scale for accurate assessment of burnout in athletes. The objective of our study was to assess the factor structure of the Alternate Modified ABQ-15v2 using confirmatory factor analysis. If model fit was inadequate, a secondary purpose was to identify a psychometrically sound alternate ABQ model. Design: Observational study. Methods: Intercollegiate athletes and dancers pursuing a degree in dance (n = 614) were recruited from programs across the United States. Individuals had varied health statuses (eg, healthy, injured), scholarship support, and participated in a variety of intercollegiate sports. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the modified 15-item ABQ (Alternate Modified ABQ-15v2). Exploratory factor analysis and covariance modeling of a proposed alternate 9-item scale (ABQ-9) was conducted and multigroup invariance analysis was assessed across athlete category, class standing, and student-athlete scholarship status to assess consistency of item interpretation across subgroups. Results: The Modified ABQ did not meet recommended model fit criteria. The ABQ-9 met all recommended model fit indices but was not invariant across athlete category. Conclusions: The ABQ-9 may be a viable and efficient option for assessing burnout in the collegiate athletics setting. However, further research is needed to validate the ABQ-9 in a cross-validation study.

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Motivation for Consumption of Collegiate Athletics Subscription Web Sites

Robin Hardin, Gi-Yong Koo, Brody Ruihley, Stephen W. Dittmore, and Michael McGreevey

The growth of the Web has had a tremendous impact on how information is disseminated and shared about sports. Research has shown that consumers use media to satisfy a variety of needs and desires, has examined online sport media consumption, and the use of online sport media. But there has been no examination of the motivating factors behind subscription based online media, in particular, paid content sites and message boards. This study explored the relationships of motives, perceived value, and hours in usage per week. Five motives were verified through a confirmatory factor analysis. An examination of the usage characteristics of the respondents demonstrates a loyal and active user. This is important for the site administrators in that the subscribers are using the site as a “go to” destination and not merely something to peruse during their leisure time. The site is acting as an entry point onto the Web.

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Collegiate Athletics and the Unrelated Business Income Tax

Caroline Kern Craig and Karen Weisman

In recent years, many university athletic programs have turned to program and scoreboard advertisements, corporate sponsorships, and other nontraditional sources of revenue to supplement their operating budgets. As confirmed by several high-profile court cases, these nontraditional revenue sources can be subject to federal unrelated business income tax—-a consequence often overlooked by athletic administrators and those involved in sport management programs. This article discusses the unrelated business income tax and its impact on collegiate athletic programs. Court cases and Internal Revenue Service pronouncements are reviewed, where applicable. Compliance and planning issues are also briefly addressed.

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Games Colleges Play: Scandal and Reform in Inter-Collegiate Athletics

Jim L. Sumner

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Exploring the Relationship Between Goal Achievement Orientation and Mindfulness in Collegiate Athletics

Jessica J. McCarthy

Nicholls’ achievement goal theory suggests that a task-oriented individual sets goals based on a desire to master particular skills or tasks (Nicholls, 1984, 1989), thus promoting intrinsic motivation (Duda, Chi, Newton, & Walling, 1995). An ego-oriented individual evaluates one’s own performance against the performance of others with comparable skill sets, basing success on outperforming the opponent (Nicholls, 1984, 1989), resulting in low intrinsic motivation. Cognitive evaluation theory, embraced within self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991), suggests that an event that satisfies an inherent need for competence and autonomy leads to increased intrinsic motivation (Standage, Duda, & Pensgaard, 2005). Similarly, Brown and Ryan (2003) found that trait-mindfulness predicted more autonomous activity in day-to-day life and lower intensity and frequency of negative affect. It was therefore hypothesized that in a population of collegiate athletes, a relationship between mindfulness and goal orientation would exist; athletes higher in task-orientation would be more mindful than athletes higher in ego-orientation. Results indicate that a relationship does in fact exist between the Acting with Awareness subscale of the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS; Baer, Smith, & Allen, 2004) and task-orientation, in that as level of awareness increases, the level of task-orientation also increases. Level of awareness also predicted level of task orientation in athletes. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

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Pathos and Orchestration in Elite Sport: The Experiences of NCAA DI Student-Athletes

Johannes Raabe, Tucker Readdy, and Rebecca A. Zakrajsek

Coaching is characterized by an inherent pathos between the goals coaches hope to accomplish and those that are realized (Jones & Wallace, 2005). Coaches can actively enhance the likelihood of optimal outcomes through orchestration, a process of incremental coping intended to create improvement in performance (Jones & Wallace, 2005). The current study explored to what extent pathos also manifests in the lives of elite athletes and whether they engage in processes consistent with orchestration. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I student-athletes. Primarily deductive analysis of the qualitative data provided confirmation for four domains: (a) sources of ambiguity created by coaches, (b) other sources of ambiguity within student-athletes’ experiences, (c) attempted strategies for orchestrating the pathos, and (d) relationships are crucial for navigating the pathos. The findings potentially offer an approach to understanding the challenges athletes face, which allows coaches to more accurately provide assistance.