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Lukas K. Gaffney, Oscar D. Lozano, Adriana Almanza, Nubia Ruiz, Alejandro Mantero and Mark Stoutenberg

. Globally, the Americas have the highest prevalence of physical inactivity of all WHO regions, with approximately 40% of all individuals falling short of physical activity goals. 1 In Colombia, only 53.5% of adults achieve the recommended physical activity levels. 6 To address growing levels of physical

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Diana Marina Camargo, Paula Camila Ramírez, Vanesa Quiroga, Paola Ríos, Rogério César Férmino and Olga L. Sarmiento

(where inhabitants ranged from 50,000 to 1 million) is relevant as these cities had 61% of the urban populations in 2011. 9 In Latin America, it represents 29% of the population of the area and the highest growth dynamics in almost all countries in the region. 10 In 2014, in Colombia, 31% of the

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Sarah Oxford and Fiona McLachlan

and warm-up. The authority and confidence Valentina demonstrated on the field transformed into contextually radical statements when discussing gender in Colombia. She described Colombian women as “brave, daring, and adventurous” and men as “sexist, cowards” before explaining the injustice of customary

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Silvia A. González, Olga L. Sarmiento, Daniel D. Cohen, Diana M. Camargo, Jorge E. Correa, Diana C. Páez and Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

Background:

Physical activity (PA) is central to the global agenda for the prevention on noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Although 80% of NCDs occur in low-to-middle-income countries, the evidence on PA comes mainly from high-income countries. In this context, the report card for Colombia is an advocacy tool to help in the translation of evidence into concrete actions. The aims of this paper were two-fold: to present the methodology used to develop the first Report Card on Physical Activity in Colombian Children and Youth and to summarize the results.

Methods:

Twelve indicators of PA were graded using numerical grades (5, highest, to 1, lowest) based on data from national surveys and policy documents.

Results:

National policy and obesity indicators were graded “4,” while departmental policy and overweight indicators were graded “3.” Overall PA levels, sports participation, sedentary behaviors and nongovernment initiatives were graded “2,” and school influence was graded “1.” Active transportation, active play, low cardiorespiratory fitness, and family and community influence received an incomplete.

Conclusion:

PA levels are low and sedentary behaviors are high in Colombian children and youth. Although the prevalence of obesity in Colombia is lower compared with other Latin American countries, it is increasing. A rich legal framework and availability of institutional arrangements provide unique opportunities to bridge the gap between knowledge and practice that need to be evaluated.

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Silvia A. González, Maria A Castiblanco, Luis F. Arias-Gómez, Andrea Martinez-Ospina, Daniel D. Cohen, Gustavo A. Holguin, Adriana Almanza, Diana Marina Camargo Lemos, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Iván D. Escobar, Johnattan García, Rocio Gámez, Mauricio Garzon, Yaneth Herazo Beltrán, Hernan Hurtado, Oscar Lozano, Diana C. Páez, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Nubia Ruiz, Gustavo Tovar and Olga L. Sarmiento

Background:

Physical activity (PA) is vital to the holistic development of young people. Regular participation in PA is associated with substantial benefits for health, cognitive function, and social inclusion. Recognizing the potential of PA in the context of the current peace process in Colombia, the purpose of this article is to present the methodology and results of Colombia’s second Report Card on PA for children and youth.

Methods:

A group of experts on PA graded 14 PA indicators based on data from national surveys and policy documents.

Results:

National and departmental policy indicators received a grade of B, while organized sport participation, overweight, obesity, community influence, and nongovernment initiatives indicators received a grade of C. Overall PA levels, active transportation, sedentary behaviors, and school influence received a grade of D. Active play, low physical fitness, and family influence received an Incomplete grade.

Conclusions:

PA levels are low and sedentary behaviors are high in Colombian children and youth, with notable geographic differences. A broad policy framework translated into specific actions could provide unique opportunities to bridge the gap between knowledge and practice, and contribute to social integration goals in a postconflict setting.

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Janeth Mosquera, Diana C. Parra, Luis Fernando Gomez, Olga Sarmiento, Tom Schmid and Enrique Jacoby

Background:

The health benefits of physical activity are well documented in scientific literature. Bicycling for transportation is a modality of physical activity that people can incorporate easily into their daily lives.

Methods:

A qualitative study using 11 semi-structured individual interviews and 5 focus groups was conducted among 31 male and 13 female adult residents of Bogotá, Colombia in 2006, to explore barriers and facilitators of bicycle use for transportation purposes. People were selected based on socioeconomic status, age, and gender. Thematic analysis complemented with thematic network analysis was used to analyze the data.

Results:

Six main themes emerged from the study: 1) general acknowledgment of individual and collective benefits of bicycle use, 2) built environment conditions were linked with bicycle use, 3) some social factors affect bicycling negatively, 4) people perceived conflicts over public space related to the use of bike-paths, 5) general negative public perception of bicyclists, and 6) gender differences influence patterns of bicycle use.

Conclusion:

The findings from this qualitative study show that various social and physical barriers must be addressed to increase bicycle use as a means of transportation in Bogotá.

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Silvia A. González, Camilo A. Triana, Catalina Abaunza, Laura Aldana, Luis F. Arias-Gómez, Jhael Bermúdez, Diana Marina Camargo Lemos, Juan Camilo Cuya, Daniel D. Cohen, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Iván D. Escobar, Karen Lorena Fajardo, Johnattan García, Rocio Gámez, Julia Andrea Gómez, Yaneth Herazo Beltrán, Maria Jose Lizarazo, Oscar Lozano, Paola Andrea Martínez, Mercedes Mora, Diana C. Páez, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Maria Isabel Rodríguez, Nubia Ruiz, Gustavo Tovar, Julieth Pilar Uriza and Olga L. Sarmiento

Introduction Physical activity (PA) promotion across the lifespan is a key strategy for the prevention of non-communicable diseases in the public health agenda in Colombia. 1 However, the sparse national data available before 2015 indicated that PA levels among Colombian adolescents were low and

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Carlos Mario Arango, Diana C. Parra, Amy Eyler, Olga Sarmiento, Sonia C. Mantilla, Luis Fernando Gomez and Felipe Lobelo

Background:

Active school transport (AST) is a recommended strategy to promote physical activity (PA) and prevent overweight (OW) in school-aged children. In many developing countries, such as Colombia, this association has not been well characterized.

Objective:

To determine the association between AST and weight status in a representative sample of adolescents from Montería, Colombia.

Methods:

Participants were 546 adolescents (278 boys) aged 11 to 18 years old from 14 randomly selected schools in Montería, Colombia in 2008. The PA module of the Global School Health Survey (GSHS-2007) was used to determine the prevalence of AST. To identify OW, participants were classified according to CDC 2000 criteria (BMI ≥85th percentile). Association between AST and OW was determined by binomial logistic regression.

Results:

Odds ratios adjusted for age, sex, location of school, compliance with PA, and screen time recommendations showed that adolescents who reported AST had a significantly lower likelihood to be OW compared with adolescents who reported nonactive transportation (OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3−0.8, P < .05).

Conclusions:

These results support the importance of AST as a useful PA domain with potential implications for overweight prevention, in rapidly developing settings. Further epidemiologic and intervention studies addressing AST are needed in the region.

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Pedro C. Hallal, Luis Fernando Gomez, Diana C. Parra, Felipe Lobelo, Janeth Mosquera, Alex A. Florindo, Rodrigo S. Reis, Michael Pratt and Olga L. Sarmiento

Background:

To describe the lessons learned after 10 years of use of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) in Brazil and Colombia, with special emphasis on recommendations for future research in Latin America using this instrument.

Methods:

We present an analytical commentary, based on data from a review of the Latin American literature, as well as expert consultation and the authors' experience in administering IPAQ to over 43,000 individuals in Brazil and Colombia between 1998 and 2008.

Results:

Validation studies in Latin America suggest that the IPAQ has high reliability and moderate criteria validity in comparison with accelerometers. Cognitive interviews suggested that the occupational and housework sections of the long IPAQ lead to confusion among respondents, and there is evidence that these sections generate overestimated scores of physical activity. Because the short IPAQ considers the 4 physical activity domains altogether, people tend to provide inaccurate answers to it as well.

Conclusions:

Use of the leisure-time and transport sections of the long IPAQ is recommended for surveillance and studies aimed at documenting physical activity levels in Latin America. Use of the short IPAQ should be avoided, except for maintaining consistency in surveillance when it has already been used at baseline.

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Ernesto Pacheco, Diana P. Hoyos, Willinton J. Watts, Lucía Lema and Carlos M. Arango

The objectives of the study were to describe the feasibility of an intervention in older women based on folk dances of the Colombian Caribbean region, and to analyze the effects of the intervention on physical fitness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A pilot study was conducted in a sample of 27 participants, 15 in the intervention group (IG) and 12 in the comparison group (CG). Caribbean Colombian dance rhythms were introduced as an intervention that lasted 12 weeks. Recruitment and retention was not optimal. Treatment fidelity components indicated that intervention was administered as intended. IG participants showed positive and statistically significant changes in some components of physical fitness. No significant changes were observed in HRQoL indicators for either group. In conclusion, the intervention was feasible, but recruitment and retention was challenging. Folk dances of the Colombian Caribbean region provoked significant results in physical fitness but not in HRQoL.