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Mariana F.M. Oliveira, Fabrizio Caputo, Ricardo D. Lucas, Benedito S. Denadai and Camila C. Greco


To identify the speed corresponding to anaerobic threshold using the D-max method for both blood lactate and biomechanical stroke parameters determined in an incremental swimming test and to compare this information with the speed corresponding to the maximal lactate steady state (SMLSS).


Five male long-distance swimmers and 8 triathletes (N = 13; age 23.8 ± 9.5 y, height 1.76 ± 0.1 m, weight 71.3 ± 9.8 kg) performed the following protocols: maximal 400-m test to determine maximal aerobic speed (S400); 7 × 200-m incremental test to determine the speed corresponding to the D-max point on the blood lactate (SLa), stroke-rate (SSR), stroke-length (SSL), and stroke-index (SSI) responses; and two to four 30-min submaximal tests to determine the SMLSS.


SLA (1.18 ± 0.08 m/s), SSI (1.18 ± 0.08 m/s), SSR (1.17 ± 0.1 m/s), and SSL (1.16 ± 0.09 m/s) were not significantly different from each other or from SMLSS (1.13 ± 0.08 m/s). There were high correlations between SLA, SSI, SSR, SSL, and SMLSS (r = .91, .89, .85, and .80, respectively). The typical errors of estimate for SLA (3.2%), SSI (3.7%), SSR (4.1%), and SSL (4.7%) suggest good validity of these variables to predict SMLSS. Furthermore, all physiological and biomechanical variables were moderately to highly correlated with S400 (r = .73–.95).


It is possible to obtain a physiological index of aerobic capacity and performance using simple biomechanical measurements during an incremental test without performing blood lactate analyses.

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Javier S. Morales, Carl Foster, Alejandro Lucia and Pedro de la Villa

steady state on a cycle ergometer . Phys Sportsmed . 2016 ; 44 ( 1 ): 34 – 45 . doi:10.1080/00913847.2016.1122501 10.1080/00913847.2016.1122501 30. Czuba M , Zając A , Cholewa J , Poprzęcki S , Waśkiewicz Z , Mikołajec K . Lactate threshold (D-max method) and maximal lactate steady

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Fernando Klitzke Borszcz, Artur Ferreira Tramontin and Vitor Pereira Costa

). Recently, Valenzuela et al 12 compared FTP 20 with AnT (D-max method) in cyclists classified on the basis of the MAP (W·kg −1 ) as T and RT and verified that random errors of prediction were similar for both the T and RT cyclists (±95% LoA = 7.8% and 8.3%, respectively). However, in the RT and T cyclists

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Alice M. Wallett, Amy L. Woods, Nathan Versey, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert and Kevin G. Thompson

of heart rate maximum. LT1 is the first intensity at which there is a sustained increase in blood lactate concentration (>0.4 mmol/L) above resting levels, and LT2 (calculated using the modified D max method) indicates the upper limit of equilibrium between lactate production and lactate clearance

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Matthew I. Black, Joseph C. Handsaker, Sam J. Allen, Stephanie E. Forrester and Jonathan P. Folland

∼30-µL capillary blood sample was taken from the fingertip for analysis of blood lactate (YSI 2300, Yellow Springs Instruments, Yellow Springs, OH) after the completion of each submaximal running speed. The LTP was identified via a derivation of the modified D max method. 23 Briefly, a fourth

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Cruz Hogan, Martyn J. Binnie, Matthew Doyle, Leanne Lester and Peter Peeling

(Lactate Pro II; Arkray, Kyoto, Japan), and RPE (Borg 6–20 scale) 21 was recorded. Proprietary software (ADAPT; Australian Institute of Sport, Canberra, Australia) 22 was used to determine LT 1 (>0.4 mmol·L −1 rise in BLa from resting levels) and LT 2 (via the modified D-max method). 22 , 23 The