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Beatrice Gorton and Susan J. Gavron

The purpose of this study was to investigate selected kinematic variables of two classes of blind runners, B-1 and B-3, in the 100-m dash. A total of 26 males served as subjects and were filmed in actual competition at the 1984 International Games for the Disabled. Filming was conducted at 150 frames per second with the camera positioned perpendicular to the plane of motion. Kinematic data extracted from the film included center of gravity, displacements, velocities, and selected joint angles. It was believed that the results of this study would be useful for (a) establishing some descriptive data of blind athletes in B-1 and B-3 classes, (b) understanding individual differences among blind runners of two different classifications, and (c) providing empirical data of the running patterns from which implications for the development of teaching/coaching methods might be gained.

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Eric L. Sauers, Danelle L. Dykstra, R. Curtis Bay, Kellie Huxel Bliven and Alison R. Snyder

Context:

Throwing-related arm injuries are common in softball pitchers and may lead to diminished health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Arm symptoms such as pain have been reported to be more common in healthy overhead athletes than nonoverhead athletes. Furthermore, more frequent shoulder symptoms and lower shoulder function have been demonstrated in athletes with self-reported history of shoulder injury.

Objective:

To evaluate the relationship between arm injury history, current pain rating, and HRQOL assessed via 2 region-specific patient self-report scales in high school and college softball pitchers.

Design:

Cross-sectional.

Setting:

High school and college athletic training facilities.

Participants:

25 female softball pitchers (10 high school, 15 college; 18 ± 2 y, 169 ± 7.6 cm, 67.5 ± 10.3 kg).

Intervention:

Self-reported arm injury history and rating of current pain and HRQOL were collected during the late season.

Main Outcome Measures:

A self-report questionnaire of arm injury history and current pain rating was used, and HRQOL was assessed via 2 region-specific scales: the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) and the Functional Arm Scale for Throwers© (FAST©). Correlational analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between arm injury history, current pain rating, and the DASH total score and sport module and the FAST total score, pitching module, and subscales.

Results:

A history of arm injury from throwing was reported by 64% of participants, 31% of whom had to cease activity for more than 10 d. The most common site of arm time-loss injury was the shoulder (81%). Mild to severe shoulder pain during the competitive season was reported by 60% of respondents. The DASH and the FAST total scores were significantly correlated (r = .79, P < .001). Respondent rating of shoulder pain correlated significantly with the DASH total (r = .69) and sports module (r = .69) and the FAST total (r = .71), pitching module (r = .65), and pain (r = .73), impairment (r = .76), functional-limitation (r = .79), disability (r = .52), and societal-limitations (r = .46) subscales.

Conclusion:

History of arm injury is common in female high school and college softball pitchers. Severe injury and elevated pain are associated with lower HRQOL that extends beyond the playing field.

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Saurabh Sharma and M. Ejaz Hussain

symptomatic side, (d) cervical spine radiculopathy, or (e) positive drop arm test. Instrumentation All athletes completed the Hindi SPADI and DASH (Disabilities of arm, shoulder, and hand) scale one time each, describing their demographics and clinical presentation, including age and affected shoulder side

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Thanh Nguyen, Joyce Obeid and Brian W. Timmons

The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of short-term power output, heart rate (HR) response during and after a treadmill test, and time to complete a 25-m dash in healthy preschool children. Thirty-two 3- to 5-year-old boys and girls completed two sessions approximately one week apart. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated to evaluate reliability. Power output was found to be reliable with ICCs ranging from 0.83 to 0.93 and CVs from 8.1 to 9.7%. Time to complete the 25-m dash was highly reliable (ICC = 0.91, CV = 3.7%). Reliability for HR at submaximal exercise (ICC = 0.28, CV = 18.8%) and HR recovery (ICC = 0.42, CV = 14.0%) was not as strong. These findings should assist in determining appropriate fitness tests for preschoolers.

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Khalid S. Almuzaini

The first purpose of the present study was to test sensitivity of the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) to alterations in resistance settings. The second purpose was to investigate whether using optimal braking force on WAnT enhances its relation with a 50-m dash, a vertical jump (VJ), or a standing long jump (LJ) tests. Twenty-three 12 year-old boys performed a 50-m dash, VJ, LJ, and WAnT using four braking force resistances (BFR; .065, .070, .075, and .080 kp/kg BM). Results revealed significant (p ≤ .05) differences among the four BFRs in peak power (PP) and in mean power (MP). Post hoc tests indicated significant differences among all of the four BFRs in PP and between the 0.065 and both the 0.075 and the 0.08 kp/kg BM in MP. Results of Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that using the optimal BFR for both PP and MP enhanced their relation with performance during the 50-m dash, VJ, and LJ tests. Also, partial correlation coefficients, controlling for body weight, height, percent fat, or body mass index supported these findings. It was concluded that for untrained, healthy 12-year-old boys, WAnT is sensitive to incremental alterations in resistance settings ranging from 0.065 to 0.080 kp/kg body mass. To be more specific, PP is sensitive to small increments in BFR, while MP is only sensitive to larger increments in BFR. Furthermore, optimizing resistance settings on WAnT enhances its relationship with anaerobic performance tasks, such as the 50-m dash, the VJ, and the LJ.

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Georgia D. Tsiotra, Alan M. Nevill, Andrew M. Lane and Yiannis Koutedakis

We investigated whether children with suspected Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD+) demonstrate different physical fitness levels compared with their normal peers (DCD). Randomly recruited Greek children (n = 177) were assessed for body mass index (BMI), flexibility (SR), vertical jump (VJ), hand strength (HS), 40m dash, aerobic power, and motor proficiency. ANCOVA revealed a motor proficiency (i.e., DCD group) effect for BMI (p < .01), VJ (p < .01), and 40m speed (p < .01), with DCD+ children demonstrating lower values than DCD. Differences between DCD+ and DCD were also obtained in log-transformed HS (p < .01). These findings suggest that intervention strategies for managing DCD should also aim at physical fitness increases.

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Charles Thigpen and Ellen Shanley

Patient Scenario:

The patient presented is a high school baseball pitcher who was unable to throw because of shoulder pain. He subsequently failed nonoperative management but was able to return to pitching after surgery and successful rehabilitation.

Clinical Outcomes Assessment:

The Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and the Pennsylvania Shoulder Score (PENN) were selected as clinical outcome assessment tools to quantify the patient’s perceived ability to perform common daily tasks and sport tasks and current symptoms such as pain and patient satisfaction.

Clinical Decision Making:

The DASH and PENN provide important information that can be used to target specific interventions, set appropriate patient goals, assess between-sessions changes in patient status, and quantify patients’ functional loss.

Clinical Bottom Line:

Best clinical practice involves the use of clinical outcome assessment tools to garner an objective measure of the impact of a patient’s disease process on functional expectations. This process should facilitate a patient-centered approach by clinicians while they select the optimal intervention strategies and establish prognostic timelines.

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Michael R. Bracko and Gilbert W. Fellingham

Fifty-four female and 77 male hockey players ranging in age from 10–15 years volunteered for this study. Demographic data included: age (AGE) and years of playing experience (YPE). Off-ice tests included: height (HGT), body mass (BM), lean body mass (LBM), predicted body fat % (FAT%), 40-yard dash (40YD), vertical jump (VJ), push-ups/min (PUPS), sit-ups/min (SUPS), and sit-and-reach flexibility (S&R). On-ice performance skating tests included: acceleration (ACC), agility (AGL), and speed (SPD). On-ice anaerobic power (AnPow) was calculated using the formula of Watson and Sargeant (IS). Generally speaking, the females and males in this study had similar results in office fitness. The males consistently out-performed the females in the on-ice tests. It would be difficult for females to compete with or against same-aged males based on the fact that males are superior skaters.

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Robert W. Arnhold Jr. and Peter McGrain

The purpose of this study was to determine which set of selected kinematic variables affected the speed of visually impaired residential youth in the sprint run. The subjects were 27 students, 16 males and 11 females, between the ages of 9.4 and 16.4 years. Film data were collected during two trials of the 50-m dash. A Fortran computer program produced nine variables from these digitized data. A multiple regression analysis was performed on the variables using running speed as the dependent variable. Results of a correlation matrix yielded five variables with significant bivariate correlations to running speed. Results of a regression analysis indicated that the cycle length and hip joint range of motion had significant effects on running speed. Implications for an increase in sprinting speed include increasing stride length via the generation of greater hip extension during the drive phase and a greater hip flexion during the recovery phase of sprint running.

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Vassilis Vardaxis and T. Blaine Hoshizaki

This paper describes and interprets joint and segmental power patterns as functional characteristics of the leg movement in terms of generation, absorption, and transfer of power during the recovery phase of the sprinting stride. In addition, a comparison of the power patterns between advanced and intermediate sprinters was undertaken. Two advanced and two intermediate sprinters, each executing six trials of a 100-m dash, served as subjects. The results revealed that the power patterns for both the advanced and intermediate sprinters were similar in shape, depicting the same number of power phases. The hip joint musculature acted primarily as a power generator in comparison to the knee muscles, which acted mainly as absorbers (controllers) during the recovery phase of the sprinting stride. Differences between ability levels were identified using peak power values, with the advanced sprinters producing higher peak powers earlier in the recovery phase.