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Zan Gao

Background:

Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) is considered a tool to help children promote a healthy active lifestyle. Empirical studies in this field have been largely unexplored. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between students’ mastery experiences, situational motivation, and physical activity levels in DDR.

Methods:

One hundred and ninety-five seventh, eighth, and ninth graders participated in a 2-week DDR unit. Students’ physical activity levels and situational motivation [intrinsic motivation (IM), identified regulation (IR), external regulation, and amotivation) were measured for 3 classes.

Results:

Students were motivated to play DDR, but their moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was low (ie, mean = 4.95%). In addition, students with successful mastery experiences had significantly higher IM, IR, and MVPA.

Conclusions:

Although students were motivated for DDR, they were not physically active in DDR. In addition, successful mastery experience played an important role in students’ motivation and physical activity levels in DDR.

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Zan Gao and Ping Xiang

Background:

Exergaming has been considered a fun solution to promoting a physically active lifestyle. This study examined the impact of an exergaming-based program on urban children’s physical activity participation, body composition and perceptions of the program.

Methods:

A sample of 185 children’s physical activity was measured in August 2009 (pretest), and percent body fat was used as index of body composition. Fourth graders were assigned to intervention group engaging in 30 minutes exergaming-based activities 3 times per week, while third and fifth graders were in comparison group. Measurements were repeated 9 months later (posttest). Interviews were conducted among 12 intervention children.

Results:

ANCOVA with repeated measures revealed a significant main effect for intervention, F(1, 179) = 10.69, P < .01. Specifically, intervention children had significantly greater increased physical activity levels than comparison children. Logistic regression for body composition indicated intervention children did not differ significantly in percent body fat change from comparison children, Chi square = 5.42, P = .14. Children interviewed reported positive attitudes toward the intervention.

Conclusions:

The implementation of exergaming-based program could have a significantly positive effect on children’s physical activity participation and attitudes. Meanwhile, long-term effect of the program on children’s body composition deserves further investigation.

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Zachary C. Pope, Beth A. Lewis and Zan Gao

Background:

The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) has been widely used to understand individuals’ physical activity (PA) correlates and behavior. However, the theory’s application among children in exergaming remains unknown.

Purpose:

Investigate the effects of an exergaming program on children’s TTM-based PA correlates and PA levels.

Methods:

At pretest and posttest, 212 upper elementary children (mean age = 11.17 years) from the greater Mountain West Region were administered measures regarding stages of change (SOC) for PA behavior, decisional balance for PA behaviors, PA self-efficacy, and self-reported PA levels. Following the pretest, a weekly 30-minute, 18-week Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) program was implemented. Children were classified into 3 SOC groups: progressive children (ie, progressed to a higher SOC stage); stable children (ie, remained at the same SOC stage); and regressive children (ie, regressed to a lower SOC stage).

Results:

Progressive children had greater increased PA levels than regressive children (P < .01) from pretest to posttest. Similarly, progressive children had greater increased self-efficacy (P < .05) and decision balance (P < .05) than regressive children.

Conclusions:

The findings indicate that progressive children had more improvements on self-efficacy, decisional balance, and PA levels than regressive children over time. Implications of findings are discussed.

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You Fu and Ryan D. Burns

, aerobic workouts, race competitions, and locomotor skill games. All students in the AVG classroom had the opportunity to play the video games at the same time. The video games were easy to set up, and there were no bulky cords like other video games such as “Dance, Dance, Revolution” or “Wii Fit,” which

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Alexandra Valencia-Peris, Joan Úbeda-Colomer, Jorge Lizandra, Carmen Peiró-Velert and José Devís-Devís

the Canadian study asked the question “Do you play active video games (eg, Wii Fit, Dance Dance Revolution)?” (yes/no). Unified criteria, in terms of time, are essential for defining active gamers, because these will allow appropriate comparisons across studies internationally and the development of

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Scott E. Crouter, Paul R. Hibbing and Samuel R. LaMunion

the tasks being performed. Example activities performed during the unstructured measurement included SB (e.g., playing computer games, reading, and doing homework), sporting activities (e.g., basketball, lifting weights, soccer, and playing catch), active video games (e.g., Dance Dance Revolution

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Phillip D. Tomporowski and Daniel M. Pendleton

complexity on young adults’ psychomotor learning. The studies address hypotheses raised in discussions concerning potential interactive roles of exercise type, complexity, and intensity on cognitive functions ( Pesce, 2009 ). A well-known exercise program, Dance Dance Revolution (DDR), was used to promote

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Jungyun Hwang, I-Min Lee, Austin M. Fernandez, Charles H. Hillman and Amy Shirong Lu

different modes of exergames is still relatively unknown ( 5 , 37 ). The use of exergames capable of achieving a light- to vigorous-intensity level of physical activity (assessed via indirect calorimetry) through various platforms such as Xbox ( 10 ), Wii ( 36 ), and Dance Dance Revolution ( 1 , 55 ) has