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Chelsee A. Shortt, Collin A. Webster, Richard J. Keegan, Cate A. Egan, and Ali S. Brian

seeking to implement PL initiatives, such differences are confusing and can appear arbitrary, potentially confusing, or even preventing implementation efforts ( Spengler & Cohen, 2015 ). When discordance surrounds a topic, a Delphi technique is recommended ( Linstone & Turoff, 1975 ; Powell, 2003 ). The

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Andrea R. Taliaferro and Sean M. Bulger

consensus regarding the essential characteristics of APE practicum experiences for preservice physical educators. Method Research Design Ziglio ( 1996 ) described the Delphi method as “a structured process for collecting and distilling knowledge from a group of experts by means of a series of questionnaires

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Richard J. Keegan, Lisa M. Barnett, Dean A. Dudley, Richard D. Telford, David R. Lubans, Anna S. Bryant, William M. Roberts, Philip J. Morgan, Natasha K. Schranz, Juanita R. Weissensteiner, Stewart A. Vella, Jo Salmon, Jenny Ziviani, Anthony D. Okely, Nalda Wainwright, and John R. Evans

, compatible with, and responsive to, existing research evidence (cf.  Nelson & Campbell, 2017 ; Nevo & Slonim-Nevo, 2011 ). These considerations were addressed by deploying a Delphi methodology, drawing on the expertise of leading Australian researchers and practitioners, with the guidance of international

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Isobelle J.R. Biggin, Jan H. Burns, and Mark Uphill

Research suggests elite athletes have an equal—or, in some circumstances, possibly higher—probability of developing mental ill-health as the general population. However, understanding of these issues among athletes and coaches remains largely limited. The perceptions of mental-health problems among 19 elite athletes and 16 coaches were explored using two concurrent three-round Delphi surveys whose responses were compared. Athletes and coaches expressed different opinions and experiences of mental ill-health among elite athletes. However, both groups felt the pressure athletes place on themselves is a significant contributing factor and that obsessional compulsive tendencies and anxiety may be particularly prevalent. While associated stigma was thought to be a barrier to seeking support, both groups felt sport and clinical psychologists would provide the most appropriate support, with coaches playing an important signposting role. Implications for athletes, coaches, and clinical and sport psychologists are explored and suggestions for future research are presented.

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Matthew T. Bowers, B. Christine Green, and Chad S. Seifried

Founders of the North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM) set out to realize a future in which the management of sport was part of a broader vision that included exercise, dance and play. However, the organization quickly became untethered from this broad interpretation of sport management. In this mixedmethod historical research and Delphi study, 10 founding members of NASSM explain the underlying reasons why NASSM leaders redirected the organization’s focus over time. Drawing from the literature on institutional legitimacy as a lens to understand the development of NASSM, the findings suggest an emphasis on commercial sport emerged over that of exercise, dance, and play. This emphasis was perceived to offer a more sustainable niche within the crowded sport and physical activity academic society continuum. Shaped by market- and culture-driven processes, NASSM’s legitimacy-seeking efforts ultimately catalyzed a narrowing of the organization’s scope.

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Carla A. Costa

Ongoing debates about appropriate foci and growth of sport management research, application, theory, and training are evidence of the field’s growing pains. These growing pains also occur in other fields in which they function as a means to expand and elaborate the paradigms through which fields of inquiry grow and mature. In this study, a panel of 17 leading sport management scholars from around the globe responded to three iterations of a Delphi questionnaire probing their views about the status and future of the field. Panelists agreed that stronger research, additional cross-disciplinary research, a stronger link between theory and practice, enhanced infrastructure, and improved doctoral training are desirable objectives. They disagreed, however, about the appropriate academic home for sport management, what constitutes quality research, the roles of qualitative vs. quantitative research, and the relative value of basic vs. applied research. The results show that by actively engaging in debates over the issues identified in this study, sport management scholars can explore new ways of perceiving, thinking, and valuing that could enable proficient and constructive development of the field.

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Tricia Majewski-Schrage, Todd A. Evans, and Brian Ragan

Context:

Despite widespread acceptance, there is currently no consensus on the definition, components, and the specific techniques most appropriate to measure and quantify core stability.

Objective:

To develop a comprehensive core-stability model addressing its definition, components, and assessment techniques.

Design:

Delphi technique.

Setting:

University laboratory.

Participants:

15 content experts from United States and Canada, representing a variety of disciplines.

Main Outcome Measure:

The authors distributed an open-ended questionnaire pertaining to a core-stability definition, components, and assessment techniques specific to each expert. They collected data over 2 rounds of telephone interviews. They concluded data collection once a consensus was achieved that equated with 51% agreement among respondents.

Results:

The authors developed a working definition of core stability as the ability to achieve and sustain control of the trunk region at rest and during precise movement. Eighty-three percent of the experts considered the definition satisfactory. Therefore, the definition was accepted. Furthermore, the experts agreed that muscles (14/15 = 93.3%) and neuromuscular control (8/12 = 66.7%) were components of core stability. Assessment techniques were identified and inconsistencies were highlighted; however, no consensus was established.

Conclusions:

A consensus core-stability definition was created and 2 components were identified. However, of the initial definitions provided by the experts, no 2 were identical, which revealed the inconsistencies among experts and the importance of this study. Nonetheless, the goal of obtaining a consensus definition was obtained. Although a consensus for the assessment techniques of core stability could not be reached, it was a beneficial starting point to identify the inconsistencies that were discovered among the content experts.

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Sean M. Bulger and Lynn D. Housner

The purpose of this study was to determine the critical exercise science competencies and associated instructional methods recommended for inclusion in the physical education teacher education curriculum. The two-round modified Delphi procedure involved the repeated circulation of a questionnaire to a small panel of content experts. The Delphi panel members were asked to rate each questionnaire item in terms of theoretical importance and pedagogical relevance. The data collected during the second round of questioning were employed to provide a final measure of consensus regarding the critical strength of each exercise science competency. The Delphi panel members were also asked to complete an addendum survey concerning their recommendations regarding the most effective instructional methods for the delivery of exercise science content. The results of this process provide a conceptual framework upon which physical education teacher educators can make future curricular decisions in the area of exercise science.

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Nicholas Gilson, Wendy J. Brown, Guy Faulkner, Jim McKenna, Marie Murphy, Andy Pringle, Karin Proper, Anna Puig-Ribera, and Aphroditi Stathi

Background:

This paper aimed to use the Delphi technique to develop a consensus framework for a multinational, workplace walking intervention.

Methods:

Ideas were gathered and ranked from eight recognized and emerging experts in the fields of physical activity and health, from universities in Australia, Canada, England, the Netherlands, Northern Ireland, and Spain. Members of the panel were asked to consider the key characteristics of a successful campus walking intervention. Consensus was reached by an inductive, content analytic approach, conducted through an anonymous, three-round, e-mail process.

Results:

The resulting framework consisted of three interlinking themes defined as “design, implementation, and evaluation.” Top-ranked subitems in these themes included the need to generate research capacity (design), to respond to group needs through different walking approaches (implementation), and to undertake physical activity assessment (evaluation). Themes were set within an underpinning domain, referred to as the “institution” and sites are currently engaging with subitems in this domain, to provide sustainable interventions that refect the practicalities of local contexts and needs.

Conclusions:

Findings provide a unique framework for designing, implementing, and evaluating walking projects in universities and highlight the value of adopting the Delphi technique for planning international, multisite health initiatives.

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Bryce Dyer, Siamak Noroozi, Philip Sewell, and Sabi Redwood

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of lower-limb running prostheses and stakeholders’ perceptions of fairness in relation to their use in competitive disability sport. A Delphi study was conducted over three rounds to solicit expert opinion in a developing area of knowledge. High levels of consensus were obtained. The findings suggest that the prosthesis is defined as a piece of sporting equipment to restore athletes’ function to enable them to take part in disability sport. In addition, the panel determined that the development of this technology should be considered to be integral to the sport’s ethos. Crucially, prostheses technology should be monitored and have limits placed upon it to ensure fairness for both participants and stakeholders.