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Øyvind Standal and Gro Rugseth

The purpose of this study was to investigate what adapted physical activity (APA) students learn from their practicum experiences. One cohort of APA students participated, and data were generated from an action research project that included observations, reflective journals, and a focus group interview. The theoretical framework for the study was Dewey’s and Wackerhausen’s theories of reflections. The findings show the objects of students’ reflections, the kind of conceptual resources they draw on while reflecting, and their knowledge interests. In addition, two paradoxes are identified: the tension between reflecting from and on own values, and how practicum as a valued experience of reality can become too difficult to handle. In conclusion, we reflect on how practicum learning can be facilitated.

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Hayley Morrison and Doug Gleddie

Dewey’s theory of experience, described in his 1938 work Experience in Education, and in particular his criteria of continuity and interaction, was used as a lens to understand participants’ experiences and situations with PD for IPE. To understand the nature of experience we must ask: Will the

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Deborah Dewey and Lawrence R. Brawley

A major research limitation in investigating the validity of the TAIS has been the failure to distinguish when attentional style has an effect on the information processing system, early as in encoding or late after processing. Few investigations have examined the TAIS predictive validity in a controlled setting wherein task attention demands can be systematically and accurately varied. Does the general trait of attentional style really have anything to do with how attention related information is processed? The present study examined this question using a valid attention theory (Treisman's feature integration theory) and a visual search paradigm. When the TAIS attentional-style scales were correlated with visual search rate for attention demanding targets, no significant relationships were observed. Specifically, TAIS scales did not relate to visual search rate for an attention demanding target, the performance of subjects extreme in search rate, or the central to peripheral slowing of search time in target detection. The factorial validity of the TAIS was also questioned. It was concluded that the attentional-style scales were not valid in predicting how attention related visual information is processed. The importance of distinguishing when attentional style might be operating in the information processing system was emphasized for future research.

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Brenda N. Wilson, Bonnie J. Kaplan, Susan G. Crawford, and Deborah Dewey

To examine the reliability of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Long Form (BOTMP-LF), approximately 40 therapists completed a questionnaire on the administration and scoring of this test (72% response rate). A large degree of inconsistency between therapists was found. This prompted a study of interrater reliability of six therapists who received rigorous training on the BOTMP-LF. Results indicated that consistency of scoring between testers was statistically high for the battery, composite, and subtest scores. However, item-by-item agreement was low for many items, and agreement between raters on their diagnosis of the children as having motor problems was only fair to good. There was no difference in interrater reliability of the test for children with and without learning, attentional, or motor coordination problems. Some limitations of the BOTMP-LF are apparent from these studies.

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Mikael Quennerstedt

A theoretical framework for analyzing and discussing subject content in physical education that takes both learning content and teaching content into consideration is presented. For this purpose, John Dewey’s transactional approach on meaning making (Altman & Rogoff, 1987; Bentley & Dewey, 1991) as well as a discourse theoretical position (Foucault, 1988, 2002; Wetherell, Taylor & Yates, 2001) are used. On the one hand, this makes it possible to analyze the institutional content and conditions of meaning making in physical education, and on the other to discuss the content offered as one aspect of pupils’ meaning making. An empirical example of the outlined approach is also given from a previous study of local curriculum documents in Swedish physical education (Quennerstedt, 2006a, 2006b). The example illustrates how we can understand aspects of meaning making in physical education and also the research claims made possible using a transactional approach.

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Peter R. Giacobbi Jr., Artur Poczwardowski, and Peter Hager

A pragmatic research philosophy is introduced that embraces mixed-method approaches to applied research questions. With its origins in the work of Peirce (1984), James (1907), Dewey (1931), and contemporary support from Rorty (1982, 1990,1991), pragmatism emphasizes the practical problems experienced by people, the research questions posited, and the consequences of inquiry. As a way to highlight applications of pragmatism in sport psychology, pragmatism is compared to constructivism and positivism in terms of philosophical underpinnings and methodological applications. The pragmatic researcher is sensitive to the social, historical, and political context from which inquiry begins and considers morality, ethics, and issues of social justice to be important throughout the research process. Pragmatists often use pluralistic methods during multiphase research projects. Exemplar design types are discussed that logically cohere to a pragmatic research philosophy.

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Niki Tsangaridou and Mary O’Sullivan

The ability to think about why and what one does is vital to intelligent practice, practice that is reflective rather than routine (Dewey, 1904/1965; Richert,1991; Zeichner, 1987). This study describes how specific reflective pedagogical strategies influence preservice teachers to reflect on practice. Six junior physical education major were assigned to one of two groups: the Level 1 reflective group (LI-RG) or the Level 2 reflective group (LII-RG). Participants in the LI-RG completed new reflective assignments while the participants in the LII-RG completed the course’s regular reflective assignments. Data were collected through interviews, logs, and video commentaries and were analyzed using inductive analysis techniques. The reflective framework for teaching in physical education (RFTPE) was developed to describe the focus and levels of reflection by physical education teachers. The findings supported the positive influence of new pedagogical reflective strategies in promoting the reflective abilities of preservice teachers.

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Peter M. Hopsicker and Douglas Hochstetler

In this paper, we ethically examine the value of dichotomies to the endurance community or any sports community bifurcated by attitudes of superiority in one qualitative method of experiencing an activity over another—as Pearl Izumi's 2007 advertising campaign “We are not joggers” has done by dividing the bipedal ambulatory endurance community into “runners” and “joggers.” Using the writings of American pragmatists William James and John Dewey, we will describe the endurance sports community in terms of “unsympathetic characters” and “sympathetic characters.” We will then layer conceptions of the “static” self and the “dynamic” self on top of this dichotomy. The results of this examination will not support Pearl Izumi's dichotomy in “static” ways. However, if these perspectives are viewed as exemplifying a temporal measure of the “dynamic” self, as part of the endurance athletes' personal narratives, then actions and attitudes based on these dichotomies can be seen as part of meaningful personal and community growth as well as a potential source of virtue.

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Robert Shapiro

teaching and coaching. Biomechanics research was not an area I had ever considered. Fortunately for me, my math and science background caught the eye of Dr. Dewey Morehouse, director of the Sports Research Institute at Penn State. Evidently, the Sports Research Institute had an open research assistantship

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Priscila Alfaro-Barrantes, Brittany L. Jacobs, and Brian Wendry

, such as Dewey ( 1916 ), saw teaching as a way of engaging in collective and cooperative citizenship. This belief was later formalized, and, in the 1960s, the term “service learning” was developed ( Giles & Eyler, 1994 ). Despite the introduction of service-learning into the pedagogical vernacular, it