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Meghan Warren, Craig A. Smith and Nicole J. Chimera

Context:

The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) evaluates performance in 7 fundamental movement patterns using a 4-point scale. Previous studies have reported increased injury risk with a composite score (CS) of 14/21 or less; these studies were limited to specific sports and injury definition.

Objective:

To examine the association between FMS CS and movement pattern scores and acute noncontact and overuse musculoskeletal injuries in division I college athletes. An exploratory objective was to assess the association between injury and FMS movement pattern asymmetry.

Design:

Prospective cohort.

Setting:

College athletic facilities.

Participants:

167 injury-free, college basketball, football, volleyball, cross country, track and field, swimming/diving, soccer, golf, and tennis athletes (males = 89).

Intervention:

The FMS was administered during preparticipation examination.

Main Outcome Measure:

Noncontact or overuse injuries that required intervention from the athletic trainer during the sport season.

Results:

FMS CS was not different between those injured (n = 74; 14.3 ± 2.5) and those not (14.1 ± 2.4; P = .57). No point on the ROC curve maximized sensitivity and specificity; therefore previously published cut-point was used for analysis with injury (≤14 [n = 92]). After adjustment, no statistically significant association between FMS CS and injury (odds ratio [OR] = 1.01, 95% CI 0.53–1.91) existed. Lunge was the only movement pattern that was associated with injury; those scoring 2 were less likely to have an injury vs those who scored 3 (OR = 0.21, 95% CI 0.08–0.59). There was also no association between FMS movement pattern asymmetry and injury.

Conclusion:

FMS CS, movement patterns, and asymmetry were poor predictors of noncontact and overuse injury in this cohort of division I athletes.

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Kiira N. Poux and Mary D. Fry

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between studentathletes’ perceptions of the motivational climate on their sport teams and their own career exploration and engagement and athletic identity. Student-athletes (N = 101) from various National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I institutions were administered online surveys. Canonical correlation analysis was used to examine the relationship between the climate variables (i.e., caring, task, and ego) and athletic identity, career self-efficacy, and career exploration/engagement. One significant function emerged: Perceptions of a high task-involving climate and moderate caring climate were positively associated with athletes’ reporting higher athletic identity, career self-efficacy, and career exploration/engagement. Results suggest that Division I athletes may benefit from having coaches who foster a caring and task-involving team climate with regard to the athletes’ development as holistic individuals who spend their college years performing at a high level of sport and also preparing for their lives after college and sports.

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Scott B. Martin, Craig A. Wrisberg, Patricia A. Beitel and John Lounsbury

A 50-item questionnaire measuring athletes’ attitudes toward seeking a sport psychology consultant (ATSSPCQ) was initially developed and then administered to 48 African American and 177 Caucasian student-athletes at a NCAA Division I university. Principal components factor analyses were conducted to extract initial factors and then varimax orthogonal rotation was performed. The analyses produced three dimensions of athlete attitude that accounted for 35% of the variance: stigma tolerance, confidence in a SPC/recognition of need, and interpersonal openness/willingness to try a SPC. A MANOVA and follow-up discriminant function analyses were then performed to identify the factors that maximized differences between gender and race. Significant differences in stigma tolerance were found for both gender and race. SPCs were stigmatized more by male athletes than by female athletes and more by African American athletes than by Caucasian athletes. No other significant effects were obtained.

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Laurel W. Sheffield and Lauren A. Stutts

existing literature and is novel research for three main reasons: 1) it adds to the literature to elucidate the conflicting findings on the relationship between gender and athletic status and response to pain, 2) it compares Division I athletes to non-Division I athletes in response to pain, which has not

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William V. Massey, Stacy L. Gnacinski and Barbara B. Meyer

Research has demonstrated the efficacy of psychological skills training (PST), yet many athletes do not appear ready to do whatever it takes to improve the mental aspects of performance. Although the transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM), generally, and readiness to change, specifically, have received considerable attention in a range of allied health fields, few studies have been conducted to examine this construct in applied sport psychology. The purpose of the current study was to examine National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I athletes’ readiness for PST as it relates to their stage of change, decisional balance, self-efficacy, and use of processes of change. The data trends observed in the current study were consistent with the theoretical underpinnings of the TTM as well as previous research on NCAA Division I athletes. The results of the current study highlight the need to consider readiness to change when designing and implementing PST interventions.

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Sharon H. Thompson, Presley Smith and Rita DiGioacchino

A serious commitment to sport and exercise may predispose female athletes to the development of eating disorders. The energy restriction and accompanying menstrual disorders that are often associated with eating disorders may increase female athletes’ injury risks. The purpose of this study was to assess NCAA Division I, II, and III female collegiate cross country athletes’ weekly exercise time, rates of injury, menstrual dysfunction, and subclinical eating disorder risks. A paper-pencil survey was completed by athletes (mean age = 19.64 years) from NCAA Division I (n = 82), Division II (n = 103) and Division III (n = 115) colleges across the United States. Division I athletes spent significantly more weekly exercise time (M = 687.97 minutes) than Division II (M = 512.38 minutes, p = .0007) or Division III (M = 501.32 minutes, p = .0003) athletes. When examining rates of menstrual dysfunction, 23 percent reported amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea. Over 60 percent (64.3%) of the athletes reported a performance-related injury, with the knee being the most commonly injured site. 24 percent (23.7%) of the athletes reported having stress fractures. Scores for subclinical eating disorders for Division I athletes were significantly higher (M = 87.11) than Division III athletes (M = 82.94, p = .0042). Division I female athletes may be at an increased risk of developing subclinical eating disorders compared to those competing in Division II or III. Because early identification of those with subclinical eating disorders prevents the progression to eating disorders, further study is warranted.

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Seok Kang, Soonhwan Lee and Seungbum Lee

The current study examined student athletes’ motives for viewing sports programs on television and their relationships with various viewing behaviors. Employing uses and gratifications theory and social differentiation theory, the study investigated whether student athletes’ motives for sports-program viewing would predict their preference of program selection and amount of viewing. An on-site survey of 225 Division I athletes from 3 Midwestern universities found that student athletes had entertainment, social-facilitation, and integration motives for sports-program viewing. Ritual use of sports programs (entertainment) was their primary motive, followed by instrumental use (social facilitation and integration). Results showed that student athletes’ main goal of watching sports programs on television was escape from their daily problems. Additional results showed that there was no gender difference in student athletes’ motives and sports-program preferences. Both male and female student athletes preferred male sports such as football and men’s college basketball.

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Sarah J. Hatteberg

Scholars have identified similarities between collegiate athletics and total institutions for profit-athletes, but few examined the relationship for athletes participating in other sports. Drawing on qualitative data collected from a sample of NCAA Division I athletes participating in four different sports, this study examined how collegiate athletics might approximate a total institution according to Goffman’s 1961 conceptualization. Consistent with Goffman’s conceptualization, athletes experienced 1) an absence of barriers between their spheres of life, 2) insularity of the athletic community, 3) strict schedules, and 4) institutional objectives used to justify totalitarian practices. These aspects of the institution helped to facilitate pervasive surveillance and extensive institutional power and control, aspects of the institution that athletes of all sports types perceived as stressful. These findings suggest that structural aspects of collegiate athletics may operate as ambient strains that could have consequences for athlete well-being, a possibility that should be explored in future research.

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Jennifer Bricker Bone and Mary D. Fry

Objective:

To determine whether athletes’ perceptions of social support from their certified athletic trainers (ATCs) were related to their beliefs about the rehabilitation process.

Design:

Division I athletes (N = 57) completed a survey including measures of social support and beliefs about rehabilitation.

Participants:

Division I college athletes (35 men, 22 women) who had sustained an injury that caused them to miss no less than 5 consecutive days.

Measurements:

The Social Support Survey (SSS) and the Sports Injury Rehabilitation Beliefs Survey (SIRBS).

Results:

Results revealed significant correlations between the SSS and the SIRBS scales only for athletes who had sustained severe injuries. Multiple-regression analyses revealed that the SSS scales were significant predictors of each of the SIRBS scales.

Conclusions:

Results suggest that when severely injured athletes perceive that their ATCs provide strong social support, they are more likely to believe in their rehabilitation programs.

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Justine J. Reel, Sonya SooHoo, Trent A. Petrie, Christy Greenleaf and Jennifer E. Carter

Previous research with female athletes has yielded equivocal findings when comparing disordered eating rates to nonathlete populations, but the rates differ for athletes in leanness and nonleanness sports (Sherman & Thompson, 2009). The purpose of the current study was to develop a measure to assess sport-specific weight pressures for female athletes. Secondly, this study identified frequencies of weight, size, and appearance pressures across sports. Participants (N =204) were female Division I athletes from three universities who represented 17 sports. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a 4-factor solution for the 16-item Weight Pressures in Sport for Females (WPS-F) scale with strong internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of 0.90). The most frequently reported pressures among female college athletes were teammates (36.8%), uniform (34.3%), and coach (33.8%). These findings are discussed in comparison with previous research along with clinical and research implications for using the WPS-F in sport psychology settings.