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Zhen Zeng, Christoph Centner, Albert Gollhofer and Daniel König

completely occlude arterial blood flow (arterial occlusion pressure [AOP]). The most frequently applied method to determine blood flow and thus AOP is the Doppler ultrasound (DU) technique. However, despite its high accuracy, the practicability of this gold-standard method 16 , 17 is limited, mainly owing

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Kunihiko Aizawa, Marissa E. Mendelsohn, Tom J. Overend and Robert J. Petrella

The authors evaluated the effects of acute arm-cycling exercise on arterial stiffness of the brachial artery (BA: working limb) and posterior tibial artery (PTA: nonworking limb) in healthy older participants. Eleven participants were tested to evaluate BA and PTA stiffness. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and arterial stiffness indices of the BA and PTA measured by Doppler ultrasound were determined before and 10 min after graded arm-cycling exercise to volitional fatigue on 2 separate days. After the exercise, although BA diameter, brachial systolic BP, pulse pressure, and HR increased significantly (all p < .05), arterial stiffness indices of the BA remained unchanged. Similarly, arterial stiffness indices of the PTA remained unchanged after the exercise, whereas HR increased significantly (p < .05). These results show that acute arm-cycling exercise failed to modify arterial stiffness of the BA and PTA, suggesting that it has no systemic effect on arterial stiffness in healthy older adults.

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Vishwanath Unnithan and Thomas W. Rowland

Clinical exercise physiologists and physicians administering stress tests in the young have used oxygen pulse as a surrogate measure of stroke volume. It is important to recognize 1) the accuracy of O2 pulse in predicting maximal stroke volume during exercise, and 2) the normal pattern of O2 pulse during a progressive exercise test. This study examined both of these issues in a cohort of 44 healthy adolescent males and females (ages 14–16 years) who performed routine progressive cycle exercise to exhaustion. Gas exchange variables were measured by standard open circuit techniques. Stroke volume at rest and during exercise was assessed by the Doppler ultrasound method. At peak exercise O2 pulse correlated closely with stroke volume (r = .73) with a SEE of 12.6 ml·beat-1. Values of maximal O2 pulse in nonathletic boys and girls were 13.3 ± 2.5 and 11.0 ± 1.7 ml·beat-1, respectively. After the initial workload, a steady rise was observed in O2 pulse, entirely reflecting an increasing arterial venous oxygen difference, with a slope of approximately 4 ml/beat per 100 watts work load. The findings support the use of O2 pulse as a valid predictor of stroke volume during exercise in youth with a moderately high level of accuracy.

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Robert Topp, Lee Winchester, Amber M. Mink, Jeremiah S. Kaufman and Dean E. Jacks

Context:

Soft-tissue injuries are commonly treated with ice or menthol gels. Few studies have compared the effects of these treatments on blood flow and muscle strength.

Objective:

To compare blood flow and muscle strength in the forearm after an application of ice or menthol gel or no treatment.

Design:

Repeated-measures design in which blood-flow and muscle-strength data were collected from subjects under 3 treatment conditions.

Setting:

Exercise physiology laboratory.

Participants:

17 healthy adults with no impediment to the blood flow or strength in their right arm, recruited through word of mouth.

Intervention:

Three separate treatment conditions were randomly applied topically to the right forearm: no treatment, 0.5 kg of ice, or 3.5 mL of 3.5% menthol gel. To avoid injury ice was only applied for 20 min.

Main Outcome Measures:

At each data-collection session blood flow (mL/min) of the right radial artery was determined at baseline before any treatment and then at 5, 10, 15, and 20 min after treatment using Doppler ultrasound. Muscle strength was assessed as maximum isokinetic flexion and extension of the wrist at 30°/s 20, 25, and 30 min after treatment.

Results:

The menthol gel reduced (−42%, P < .05) blood flow in the radial artery 5 min after application but not at 10, 15, or 20 min after application. Ice reduced (−48%, P < .05) blood flow in the radial artery only after 20 min of application. After 15 min of the control condition blood flow increased (83%, P < .05) from baseline measures. After the removal of ice, wrist-extension strength did not increase per repeated strength assessment as it did during the control condition (9−11%, P < .05) and menthol-gel intervention (8%, P < .05).

Conclusions:

Menthol has a fast-acting, short-lived effect of reducing blood flow. Ice reduces blood flow after a prolonged duration. Muscle strength appears to be inhibited after ice application.

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Christine M. Tallon, Ryan G. Simair, Alyssa V. Koziol, Philip N. Ainslie and Alison M. McManus

the exercise and recovery using a 2 MHz transcranial Doppler ultrasound (Spencer Technologies, Seattle, WA). The probe was attached using a pediatric-sized headband, and the MCA was insonated through the transtemporal window using standardized methods previously described by our laboratory ( 31 ). MCA

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Jan Wilke, Philipp Niemeyer, Daniel Niederer, Robert Schleip and Winfried Banzer

exerted by FR are mainly compressive, our finding of altered compressive tissue stiffness seems plausible. Several mechanisms, acting in concert, might explain reduced tissue stiffness after FR. Using spectral Doppler and power Doppler ultrasound, Hotfiel et al 18 showed an increase of arterial blood

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Josep C. Benítez-Martínez, Pablo Martínez-Ramírez, Fermín Valera-Garrido, Jose Casaña-Granell and Francesc Medina-Mirapeix

) and abnormal vascular structures (neovascularization [NV]), detected with Doppler ultrasound, have been shown to be an important source of patellar tendon pain. 5 – 7 In cases of tendinopathy, several histological findings have been suggested to be the cause of the changes observed in the pathology

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Javier Vázquez-Carrión, Manuela González, Zigor Montalvo and Grégoire P. Millet

by means of Doppler ultrasound (Acuson S2000; Siemens, Munich, Germany), as explained elsewhere. 19 , 20 Briefly, the cuff was placed proximately on the thighs, and pressure was gradually increased with the subject standing up. AOP was considered as the minimum pressure at which arterial blood flow

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Scott W. Cheatham and Kyle R. Stull

lateral thigh foam rolling on arterial tissue perfusion determined by spectral Doppler and power Doppler ultrasound . J Strength Cond Res . 2017 ; 31 ( 4 ): 893 – 900 . PubMed ID: 27749733 doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000001641 27749733 57. Cavanaugh MT , Doweling A , Young JD , et al . An acute

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Declan J. Ryan, Jorgen A. Wullems, Georgina K. Stebbings, Christopher I. Morse, Claire E. Stewart and Gladys L. Onambele-Pearson

the testing. Hydration status, represented as a percentage of total body mass, was determined using right wrist to right ankle bioelectrical impedance (Bodystat 1500; Bodystat, Douglas, UK). Echo Doppler ultrasound (model AU5; Esaote, Genova, Italy) using a 7.50-MHz broadband linear array transducer