Previous experiments involving discrete unimanual tasks have shown that individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have auditory/verbal-motor deficits. The present study investigated unimanual and bimanual continuous perceptual-motor actions in adults with DS. Ten adults with DS, 10 typical adults, and 10 children drew continuous circles at increasing periods bimanually and unimanually with each hand. Movement was paced by either a visual or an auditory metronome. The results revealed that for circle shape and coordination measures, children and adults were more accurate with the visual metronome, whereas adults with DS were more accurate with the auditory metronome. In the unimanual tasks, adults with DS displayed hand asymmetries on spatial measures. In the bimanual task, however, adults with DS adopted an in-phase coordination pattern and stability more similar to adults than children. These results suggest that bimanual coordination in adults with DS is functioning effectively despite hand asymmetries evident in unimanual performance.
Shannon D. Ringenbach, Romeo Chua, Brian K. V. Maraj, James C. Kao, and Daniel J. Weeks
Stamatis Agiovlasitis, Robert W. Motl, John T. Foley, and Bo Fernhall
This study examined the relationship between energy expenditure and wrist accelerometer output during walking in persons with and without Down syndrome (DS). Energy expenditure in metabolic equivalent units (METs) and activity-count rate were respectively measured with portable spirometry and a uniaxial wrist accelerometer in 17 persons with DS (age: 24.7 ± 6.9 years; 9 women) and 21 persons without DS (age: 26.3 ± 5.2 years; 12 women) during six over-ground walking trials. Combined groups regression showed that the relationship between METs and activity-count rate differed between groups (p < .001). Separate models for each group included activity-count rate and squared activity-count rate as significant predictors of METs (p ≤ .005). Prediction of METs appeared accurate based on Bland-Altman plots and the lack of between-group difference in mean absolute prediction error (DS: 17.07%; Non-DS: 18.74%). Although persons with DS show altered METs to activity-count rate relationship during walking, prediction of their energy expenditure from wrist accelerometry appears feasible.
Chih-Chia (JJ) Chen, Shannon D.R. Ringenbach, Nathaniel E. Arnold, and Kahyun Nam
Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic alteration that occurs in fetus formation. Due to chromosomal abnormality, individuals with DS are characterized by limited intellectual functioning, hypotonia, obesity, and musculoskeletal, balance, heart, and perception problems that contribute to significant
Janet L. Hauck, Isabella T. Felzer-Kim, and Kathryn L. Gwizdala
The persistent motor delays present in infants with Down syndrome (DS) can become constraints to safety, quality of life, and family convenience. Such delays prolong the time when an infant is physically dependent on caregivers. For instance, an infant who cannot independently roll must be
Amanda Young, Seán Healy, Lisa Silliman-French, and Ali Brian
Down syndrome (DS), a genetic syndrome caused by a chromosomal anomaly, is the most prevalent cause of intellectual disability (ID) in the United States ( American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ; van Gameren-Oosterom et al., 2011 ). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Kerri L. Staples, E. Andrew Pitchford, and Dale A. Ulrich
cannot be directly inferred upon populations with disabilities, it is critical to address aspects of reliability and validity, including instructional sensitivity, in both children with and without disabilities. This study includes a sample of children with Down syndrome to examine the instructional
Stamatis Agiovlasitis, Jooyeon Jin, and Joonkoo Yun
.S. population of individuals with ID includes about 250,000 persons with Down syndrome (DS) ( Presson et al., 2013 )—a condition caused by a chromosome 21 abnormality ( Roizen & Patterson, 2003 ). Individuals with ID and DS experience disparities in health compared with the general population ( Krahn & Fox
Adam Love and Stamatis Agiovlasitis
Adults with Down syndrome (DS) tend to have low physical activity levels, which may relate to how they perceive participation in physical activities. The current study entailed interviews with 30 adults with DS (age 18–71 yr, 18 women) to examine how they perceived physical activity, exercise, and sport. Through qualitative analysis informed by grounded theory, the investigators found that adults with DS have positive perceptions of physical activity that center on enjoyment. Three facets of enjoyment were identified: interaction, achievement, and process. Interaction reflected enjoyment of social contact with others including relatives, peers, caregivers, and animals. Achievement involved enjoyment of achieving particular ends including accomplishment of tasks, material rewards, formation of athletic identities, and improvement of health. Process represented enjoyment from performing a particular activity itself. This multifaceted enjoyment expressed by adults with DS may facilitate physical activity and should be considered when developing programs to improve their well-being.
Meghann Lloyd, Amy Burghardt, Dale A. Ulrich, and Rosa Angulo-Barroso
Infants with Down syndrome (DS) are described as being less active and they also experience significant delays in motor development. It is hypothesized that early infant physical activity may be influential for the acquisition of independent walking. Physical activity was monitored longitudinally in 30 infants with DS starting at an average age of 10 months participating in a treadmill training intervention. Actiwatches were placed on infants’ trunk and right ankle for a 24-hr period, every other month until walking onset. Data were analyzed to separate sedentary-to-light activity (low-act) and moderate-to-vigorous activity (high-act). Results showed that more leg high-act at an average age of 12 and 14 months is related to earlier onset of walking. It is recommended that early leg activity should be promoted in infants with DS.
E. Andrew Pitchford and Joonkoo Yun
The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of spring-levered and piezoelectric pedometers for adults with and without Down syndrome (DS). Twenty adults with DS and 24 adults without a disability walked for two minute periods on a predetermined indoor course at a self-selected, slower and faster pace. Pedometer recorded and criterion observed steps were compared to determine pedometer error. There was a significant interaction between pedometer model and walking speed. Piezoelectric pedometers demonstrated significantly less measurement error than spring-levered pedometers, particularly at slower walking speeds. There were also significant differences in pedometer error between adults with and without DS. The study concludes that pedometer measurement error is significantly different for adults with DS but also that piezoelectric pedometers can be used in the future to measure walking activity for adults with and without DS.