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Bimanual Coordination Dynamics in Adults with Down Syndrome

Shannon D. Ringenbach, Romeo Chua, Brian K. V. Maraj, James C. Kao, and Daniel J. Weeks

Previous experiments involving discrete unimanual tasks have shown that individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have auditory/verbal-motor deficits. The present study investigated unimanual and bimanual continuous perceptual-motor actions in adults with DS. Ten adults with DS, 10 typical adults, and 10 children drew continuous circles at increasing periods bimanually and unimanually with each hand. Movement was paced by either a visual or an auditory metronome. The results revealed that for circle shape and coordination measures, children and adults were more accurate with the visual metronome, whereas adults with DS were more accurate with the auditory metronome. In the unimanual tasks, adults with DS displayed hand asymmetries on spatial measures. In the bimanual task, however, adults with DS adopted an in-phase coordination pattern and stability more similar to adults than children. These results suggest that bimanual coordination in adults with DS is functioning effectively despite hand asymmetries evident in unimanual performance.

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Prediction of Energy Expenditure From Wrist Accelerometry in People With and Without Down Syndrome

Stamatis Agiovlasitis, Robert W. Motl, John T. Foley, and Bo Fernhall

This study examined the relationship between energy expenditure and wrist accelerometer output during walking in persons with and without Down syndrome (DS). Energy expenditure in metabolic equivalent units (METs) and activity-count rate were respectively measured with portable spirometry and a uniaxial wrist accelerometer in 17 persons with DS (age: 24.7 ± 6.9 years; 9 women) and 21 persons without DS (age: 26.3 ± 5.2 years; 12 women) during six over-ground walking trials. Combined groups regression showed that the relationship between METs and activity-count rate differed between groups (p < .001). Separate models for each group included activity-count rate and squared activity-count rate as significant predictors of METs (p ≤ .005). Prediction of METs appeared accurate based on Bland-Altman plots and the lack of between-group difference in mean absolute prediction error (DS: 17.07%; Non-DS: 18.74%). Although persons with DS show altered METs to activity-count rate relationship during walking, prediction of their energy expenditure from wrist accelerometry appears feasible.

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Aging Effect on Manipulative Skills in Individuals With Down Syndrome

Chih-Chia (JJ) Chen, Shannon D.R. Ringenbach, Nathaniel E. Arnold, and Kahyun Nam

Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic alteration that occurs in fetus formation. Due to chromosomal abnormality, individuals with DS are characterized by limited intellectual functioning, hypotonia, obesity, and musculoskeletal, balance, heart, and perception problems that contribute to significant

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Factors That Influence Physical Activity in Individuals With Down Syndrome: Perspectives of Guardians and Health Professionals

Emma E. Schultz, Katerina Sergi, Gregg Twietmeyer, Nicolas M. Oreskovic, and Stamatis Agiovlasitis

Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for health conditions that may be prevented or managed by engaging in recommended levels of physical activity (PA; Pikora et al., 2014 ; Sobey et al., 2015 ). PA refers to any bodily movement that increases energy expenditure above resting

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Early Movement Matters: Interplay of Physical Activity and Motor Skill Development in Infants With Down Syndrome

Janet L. Hauck, Isabella T. Felzer-Kim, and Kathryn L. Gwizdala

The persistent motor delays present in infants with Down syndrome (DS) can become constraints to safety, quality of life, and family convenience. Such delays prolong the time when an infant is physically dependent on caregivers. For instance, an infant who cannot independently roll must be

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Health Outcomes of Physical Activity Interventions in Adults With Down Syndrome: A Systematic Review

Brantley K. Ballenger, Emma E. Schultz, Melody Dale, Bo Fernhall, Robert W. Motl, and Stamatis Agiovlasitis

Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic condition that occurs from trisomy of the 21st chromosome ( Bull, 2020 ). The population prevalence of DS is 5.6 and 6.7 individuals per 10,000 people in Europe and the United States, respectively ( de Graaf et al., 2017 , 2021 ). In addition to

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A Pilot Study of a Parent-Mediated, Web-Based Motor Skill Intervention for Children With Down Syndrome: Project SKIP

Amanda Young, Seán Healy, Lisa Silliman-French, and Ali Brian

Down syndrome (DS), a genetic syndrome caused by a chromosomal anomaly, is the most prevalent cause of intellectual disability (ID) in the United States ( American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ; van Gameren-Oosterom et al., 2011 ). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

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The Instructional Sensitivity of the Test of Gross Motor Development-3 to Detect Changes in Performance for Young Children With and Without Down Syndrome

Kerri L. Staples, E. Andrew Pitchford, and Dale A. Ulrich

cannot be directly inferred upon populations with disabilities, it is critical to address aspects of reliability and validity, including instructional sensitivity, in both children with and without disabilities. This study includes a sample of children with Down syndrome to examine the instructional

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Age-Group Differences in Body Mass Index, Weight, and Height in Adults With Down Syndrome and Adults With Intellectual Disability From the United States

Stamatis Agiovlasitis, Jooyeon Jin, and Joonkoo Yun

.S. population of individuals with ID includes about 250,000 persons with Down syndrome (DS) ( Presson et al., 2013 )—a condition caused by a chromosome 21 abnormality ( Roizen & Patterson, 2003 ). Individuals with ID and DS experience disparities in health compared with the general population ( Krahn & Fox

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Sports Classification and Athletes With Intellectual Disabilities: Measuring Health Status Using a Questionnaire Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health

Lorenna Tussis, Suzie Lemmey, and Jan Burns

of severity of this impairment leading to functional differences affecting sports performance. Having only one competition class has a specific impact on athletes with Down syndrome (DS) who, because of their genetic phenotype, have additional health conditions (e.g., muscular, respiratory, skeletal