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Lucy Barnard-Brak, Tonya Davis, Tracey Sulak and Victor Brak

Objective:

The purpose of the current study was to examine the association between structured physical activity, specifically physical education, and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Physical activity may be associated with lower levels of symptoms of ADHD and this rationale provided the impetus for the current study.

Methods:

A community-based, nationally representative sample of children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten cohort (ECLS-K) was used. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the association of physical activity with symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Two random subsamples were drawn for the purposes of cross-validation of our model. Statistics reflecting model ft are reported.

Results:

With a standardized path coefficient value of –.23, findings from the current study indicate a significant, inverse association between physical education, as a structured form of physical activity, with the symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children.

Conclusions:

Using a community-based, nationally representative sample of children aged 5 to 7 years old from the United States, the results of the current study suggest that physical education, as a structured form of physical activity, may be considered as associated with lower levels of symptoms of ADHD across time.

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Nicolas Berryman, Iñigo Mujika and Laurent Bosquet

only by VO 2 max but also by aerobic endurance and the energy cost of locomotion (ECL). Interestingly, in a monograph publication dedicated to marathon performance, it was indicated that the latter determinant was a forgotten but crucial factor in elite running performance. 24 In support of this

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Nicole Alfonsin, Vienna McLeod, Angela Loder and Loretta DiPietro

: 26924850 doi:10.1177/0013916515607311 26924850 10.1177/0013916515607311 20. Knox ECL , Musson H , Adams EJ . Workplace policies and practices promoting physical activity across England . Int J Workplace Health Manag . 2017 ; 10 ( 5 ): 391 – 403 . PubMed ID: 29721039 doi:10.1108/IJWHM-01

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Alexandre M. Lehnen, Graziela H. Pinto, Júlia Borges, Melissa M. Markoski and Beatriz D. Schaan

electrophoresis (10%) and transferred to a Hybond enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) nitrocellulose membrane (GE Healthcare, New York, NY). After blocking (1 hr), the membrane was incubated with 1:250 anti-GLUT4 antibodies (#CBL243; Millipore Corp., Billerica, MA) for 16 hr at 4 °C and 3 hr at 37 °C. Later, the

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Sunghoon Shin and Jacob J. Sosnoff

.A. , Mahmoudian , A. , Koceja , D.M. , & Hong , S.L. ( 2012 ). Rambling and trembling in response to body loading . Motor Control, 16 ( 2 ), 144 – 157 . doi:10.1123/mc.16.2.144 10.1123/mcj.16.2.144 Takara , K. , Gaspar , M.I.F.A.S. , Metring , N.L. , Mateus-Vasconcelos , E.C.L. , Cliquet , A

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Eric T. Hyde, John D. Omura, Kathleen B. Watson, Janet E. Fulton and Susan A. Carlson

Activity from the Four Home Countries’ Chief Medical Officers . London, UK : Department of Health, Physical Activity, Health Improvement and Protection ; 2011 . 13. Knox ECL , Esliger DW , Biddle SJH , Sherar LB . Lack of knowledge of physical activity guidelines: can physical activity

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Katrina L. Piercy, Frances Bevington, Alison Vaux-Bjerke, Sandra Williams Hilfiker, Sean Arayasirikul and Elizabeth Y. Barnett

.2006.096982 18048795 10.2105/AJPH.2006.096982 26. Knox ECL , Esliger DW , Biddle SJH , Sherar LB . Lack of knowledge of physical activity guidelines: can physical activity promotion campaigns do better? BMJ Open . 2013 ; 3 ( 12 ): e003633 . PubMed ID: 24319271 doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013

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Helen M. Binkley and Lauren E. Rudd

. The metabolic syndrome—from insulin resistance to obesity and diabetes . Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am . 2008 ; 37 ( 3 ): 559 – 579 . PubMed ID: 18775352 doi:10.1016/j.ecl.2008.05.002 10.1016/j.ecl.2008.05.002 18775352 10. Gurka MJ , Vishnu A , Santen RJ , DeBoer MD . Progression of