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Jennifer L Etnier, Diana H. Romero and Tinna Traustadóttir

Evidence suggests that cognitive ability declines with advancing age but that aerobic fitness can serve to minimize or even negate these declines. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between age, fitness, and retention. Twenty younger (M=24.2 years) and 18 older adults (M=66.6 years) practiced on the mirror star trace until they achieved a criterion. VO2max was measured. The number of trials required to reach criterion was predicted by VO2max, p < .001. and age, p < .02. Retention distance was also predicted by VO2max, p < .001, and age, p < .001. Analysis of relative alpha change at P3 and F4 indicated that a relative increase in left-hemisphere alpha and a relative decrease in right-hemisphere alpha were associated with retention errors. Thus, older and less aerobically fit adults required more trials to reach criterion and performed less well at retention, and changes in brain activity were associated with retention errors.

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Karla A. Kubitz and Daniel M. Landers

This study examined the effects of an 8-week aerobic training program on cardiovascular responses to mental stress. Dependent variables included electrocardiographic activity, blood pressure, electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, state anxiety, and state anger. Quantification of indicators of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and central nervous system activity (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia, T-wave amplitude, and EEG activity, respectively) allowed examination of possible underlying mechanisms. Subjects (n = 24) were randomly assigned to experimental (training) and control (no training) conditions. Pre- and posttesting examined cardiorespiratory fitness and responses to mental stress (i.e., Stroop and mental arithmetic tasks). MANOVAs identified a significant effect on cardiorespiratory fitness, heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and EEG alpha laterality. The results appear consistent with the hypothesis that enhanced parasympathetic nervous system activity and decreased central nervous system laterality serve as mechanisms underlying certain aerobic training effects.

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Karla A. Kubitz and Konstantinos Pothakos

In the present study, participants were randomly assigned to an exercise or a nonexercise group to measure brain activation (spontaneous EEG activity), affect, and cognitive functioning before and after a 15-min treatment period. Exercisers (a) sat quietly for 5 min, (b) exercised for 15 min, (c) recovered for 5 min, and (d) completed a 15-min vigilance task. Nonexercisers did not exercise. There was a significant (a) Condition × Band × Time interaction for EEG activity, (b) Condition × Time interaction for Activation-Deactivation Adjective Checklist (AD ACL) scores, and (c) Condition × Time interaction for reaction times (RTs). Post hoc tests showed (a) no significant group effects at the baseline and 15-min vigilance periods, and (b) significant group effects at the postexercise and 5-min vigilance periods. Exercisers had lower levels of brain activation (i.e., more theta and alpha activity and less beta activity), higher AD ACL scores, and slower RTs than nonexercisers during these periods.

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Timothy Gannon, Daniel Landers, Karla Kubitz, Walter Salazar and Steven Petruizello

To determine if the different EEG patterns noted in previous studies were due to between-task differences in muscular exertion, the present study examined the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in the seconds prior to either holding the weight (without lifting) or executing an arm lift at either 25% or 95% of the subject's one-repetition maximum value. Temporal EEG and tempomandibular and trapezius electromyography (EMG) measures were obtained from subjects (N=20) in the half-second period during the holding of the weight or immediately before lifting the weight. The degree of attentional focus on the task was quantified through self-report measures after each set of trials. EMG activity was not significantly different between the hold and lift phases. The self-report degree of attentional focus was higher in the lift phase, compared to the hold phase, for both 25% and 95% conditions (p<.01). Increases in EEG activity for the 25% condition were observed between the hold and lift phases at 4 Hz (p<.003). This extended to 10 additional frequencies in the 95% condition (p<.004), with beta (13 to 30 Hz) activity greater in the right hemisphere (p<.004). Because there were no EMG differences between phases or conditions» it was concluded that the EEG changes were reflective of cognitive differences associated with attending to tasks that differed in level of muscular exertion.

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Sommer Christie, Maurizio Bertollo and Penny Werthner

activity during performance has been limited to closed skilled, self-paced sports, such as archery, marksmanship, or golf ( Park et al., 2015 ). To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to explore NFT and EEG activity during performance in an externally paced sport skill. In sum, the results

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Keishi Soga, Keita Kamijo and Hiroaki Masaki

the exercise condition was technically difficult due to excessive noise (i.e., drifts caused by sweat and muscle activity) in EEG data. EEG activity was recorded from 64 electrode sites arranged in an extended montage, based on the international 10–10 system ( Chatrian, Lettich, & Nelson, 1985

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Eduardo Bellomo, Andrew Cooke and James Hardy

errors ( Sakai et al., 2003 ). Cortical Activity EEG activity was recorded from four scalp locations (T7, T8, Fz, and Pz) using active recording electrodes and a direct-coupling amplifier (PET-4; Braininquiry EU, Nijmegen, the Netherlands) connected to a computer running BioExplorer (CyberEvolution, Inc

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Jason R. Themanson, Nicole J. Bing, Brad E. Sheese and Matthew B. Pontifex

), amplify (gain of 10), and filter (70-Hz low-pass filter, including a 60-Hz notch filter) the raw EEG signal in direct current mode (763 µV/bit resolution). EEG activity was recorded using Neuroscan Scan software (version 4.5.1; Compumedics USA Inc.,). PsychoPy (version 1.84.2; Peirce, 2009 ) was used for

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Shannon O’Donnell, Christopher M. Beaven and Matthew Driller

M . Naps, cognition and performance. Sleep Med Rev . 2010 ; 14 : 249 – 258 . PubMed ID: 19962331 doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2009.09.005 10.1016/j.smrv.2009.09.005 19962331 25. Hayashi M , Watanabe M , Hori T . The effects of a 20 min nap in the mid-afternoon on mood, performance and EEG

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Mohamed Romdhani, Nizar Souissi, Yassine Chaabouni, Kacem Mahdouani, Tarak Driss, Karim Chamari and Omar Hammouda

cardiac injuries during acute intermittent exercise . J Sports Med Phys Fitness . 2017 ; 57 ( 5 ): 643 – 651 . PubMed ID: 26868641 doi:10.23736/S0022-4707.16.06159-4 26868641 7. Hayashi M , Watanabe M , Hori T . The effects of a 20 min nap in the mid-afternoon on mood, performance and EEG