This study assessed the association between demographic attributes (gender, age, year in school, experience with students with disabilities, perceived competence in teaching students with disabilities, and academic preparation regarding individuals with disabilities) of undergraduate physical education majors and their attitudes toward teaching students labeled educable mentally retarded (EMR), learning disabled (LD), and behaviorally disordered (BD). Future physical educators (n = 226) were asked to complete the Physical Educators’ Attitudes Toward Teaching the Handicapped questionnaire, and 174 (77%) agreed. Data were collected on the first day of classes of a 16-week semester. Results from forward stepwise multiple-regression procedures showed that perceived competence and academic preparation regarding individuals with disabilities were the best predictors of favorable attitudes in general, and for EMR and LD. Results also showed that for BD, age and year in school were the best predictors of favorable attitudes. Thus, attitudes vary as a function of disabling conditions. The results provide evidence that there is a need to promote positive attitudes toward teaching individuals with disabilities.
Terry L. Rizzo and Don R. Kirkendall
Terri Graham-Paulson, Claudio Perret and Victoria Goosey-Tolfrey
. Sports Medicine, 34 ( 11 ), 727 – 751 . PubMed doi:10.2165/00007256-200434110-00003 10.2165/00007256-200434110-00003 Kovacs , E.M.R. , Stegen , J.H.C.H. , & Brouns , F. ( 1998 ). Effect of caffeinated drinks on substrate metabolism, caffeine excretion, and performance . Journal of Applied