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Olav Krigolson, Jon Bell, Courtney M. Kent, Matthew Heath, and Clay B. Holroyd

We used the event-related potential (ERP) methodology to examine differences in neural processing between visually and memory-guided reaches. Consistent with previous findings (e.g., Westwood, Heath, & Roy, 2003), memory-guided reaches undershot veridical target location to a greater extent than their visually guided counterparts. Analysis of the ERP data revealed that memory-guided reaches were associated with reduced potentials over medial-frontal cortex at target presentation and following movement onset. Further, we found that the amplitudes of the potentials over medial-frontal cortex for visually and memory-guided reaches were significantly correlated with the peak accelerations and decelerations of the reaching movements. Our results suggest that memory-guided reaches are mediated by a motor plan that is generated while a target is visible, and then stored in memory until needed—a result counter to recent behavioral theories asserting that memory-guided reaches are planned just before movement onset via a stored, sensory-based target representation.

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Tsung-Min Hung, Thomas W. Spalding, D. Laine Santa Maria, and Bradley D. Hatfield

Motor readiness, visual attention, and reaction time (RT) were assessed in 15 elite table tennis players (TTP) and 15 controls (C) during Posner’s cued attention task. Lateralized readiness potentials (LRP) were derived from contingent negative variation (CNV) at Sites C3 and C4, elicited between presentation of directional cueing (S1) and the appearance of the imperative stimulus (S2), to assess preparation for hand movement while P1 and N1 component amplitudes were derived from occipital event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to S2 to assess visual attention. Both groups had faster RT to validly cued stimuli and slower RT to invalidly cued stimuli relative to the RT to neutral stimuli that were not preceded by directional cueing, but the groups did not differ in attention benefit or cost. However, TTP did have faster RT to all imperative stimuli; they maintained superior reactivity to S2 whether preceded by valid, invalid, or neutral warning cues. Although both groups generated LRP in response to the directional cues, TTP generated larger LRP to prepare the corresponding hand for movement to the side of the cued location. TTP also had an inverse cueing effect for N1 amplitude (i.e., amplitude of N1 to the invalid cue > amplitude of N1 to the valid cue) while C visually attended to the expected and unexpected locations equally. It appears that TTP preserve superior reactivity to stimuli of uncertain location by employing a compensatory strategy to prepare their motor response to an event associated with high probability, while simultaneously devoting more visual attention to an upcoming event of lower probability.

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Dajo Sanders and Teun van Erp

load metrics will exist due to differences in calculations. For example, van Erp et al 42 showed that TSS reacts differently to exercise intensity compared with luTRIMP and sRPE. Sanders et al 43 found that load measures which integrate individual physiological characteristics (ie, TSS and

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Teun van Erp and Robert P. Lamberts

Erp et al 21 showed that differences in MMP %best occur between the different race categories (ie, flat, semimountain, and mountain). Although an 75 to 85 MMP %best suggests that MMP values are lower in races compared with training, we want to highlight that this is mainly caused by averaging

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Robert P. Lamberts and Teun van Erp

journals like IJSPP . References 1. Lamberts RP . Predicting cycling performance in trained to elite male and female cyclists . Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2014 ; 9 ( 4 ): 610 – 614 . PubMed ID: 24088710 doi:10.1123/ijspp.2013-0040a 10.1123/ijspp.2013-0040a 24088710 2. van Erp T , Kittel M

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Teun van Erp, Robert P. Lamberts, and Dajo Sanders

professional cycling race. For example, van Erp et al 11 recently published a case study that shows the power profile of a rider being successful in winning a Grand Tour and a case study of a rider being successful in winning sprints within a Grand Tour. 12 In larger sample sized studies, Menaspa et al 13

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Teun van Erp, Dajo Sanders, and Jos J. de Koning

Cup competitions in elite women’s road cycling . Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2017 ; 12 : 1293 – 1296 . PubMed ID: 28253040 doi:10.1123/ijspp.2016-0588 10.1123/ijspp.2016-0588 28253040 3. Sanders D , van Erp T , de Koning JJ . Intensity and load characteristics of professional road

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Teun van Erp, Marcel Kittel, and Robert P. Lamberts

. 2001 ; 31 ( 5 ): 325 – 337 . PubMed ID: 11347684 doi:10.2165/00007256-200131050-00004 10.2165/00007256-200131050-00004 11347684 2. Sanders D , van Erp T , de Koning JJ . Intensity and load characteristics of professional road cycling: differences between men’s and women’s races . Int J Sports

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Teun van Erp, Marcel Kittel, and Robert P. Lamberts

19092709 14. Sanders D , van Erp T , de Koning JJ . Intensity and load characteristics of professional road cycling: differences between men’s and women’s races . Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2019 ; 14 ( 3 ): 296 – 302 . PubMed ID: 30080422 doi:10.1123/ijspp.2018-0190 10.1123/ijspp.2018

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Teun van Erp, Marco Hoozemans, Carl Foster, and Jos J. de Koning

trainers and coaches in professional cycling. Despite the fact that TSS is highly used, there is almost no research available about the validity of TSS as measure for TL. Furthermore, van Erp et al 13 showed that TL measured during training differed from TL measured during races. It was found that during