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Zachary Y. Kerr, Andrew E. Lincoln, Shane V. Caswell, David A. Klossner, Nina Walker and Thomas P. Dompier

injury surveillance research on both TL and NTL NCAA women’s lacrosse injuries is important for appropriate management and treatment by the team medical staff and may have important implications for injury prevention programs. Methods Design The current study utilized a descriptive epidemiology design

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Russell R. Pate, Barbara J. Long and Greg Heath

This paper reviews the descriptive epidemiology of physical activity in adolescents. Large population-based studies were reviewed, along with smaller studies using objective monitoring of physical activity. Estimates showed that adolescents engage in physical activity of any intensity for a mean of one hour per day. Approximately two thirds of males and one quarter of females participate in moderate to vigorous activity for 20 min 3 or more days per week. Activity levels decline with increasing age across adolescence, and this decrease is more marked in females than in males. Comparison of these data to physical activity guidelines for adolescents suggests the vast majority are meeting the guideline of accumulating physical activity. However, a substantial number of males, and the majority of females, are not meeting the guideline for moderate to vigorous physical activity.

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Zachary Y. Kerr, Susan W. Yeargin, Yuri Hosokawa, Rebecca M. Hirschhorn, Lauren A. Pierpoint and Douglas J. Casa

research estimating approximately 4% of emergency transports are for EHI. 11 Because previous research on the epidemiology of EHI in high school sports either considered older study periods 4 , 5 or American football only, 12 updated data are needed to comprehensively reevaluate the EHI incidence among

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Brigid M. Lynch, Suzanne C. Dixon-Suen, Andrea Ramirez Varela, Yi Yang, Dallas R. English, Ding Ding, Paul A. Gardiner and Terry Boyle

applied these methods. The potential outcomes approach stems from counterfactual reasoning, an epistemological approach to understanding causality. Pearl 20 (whose profound contribution to epidemiology has been described as the “marriage of the counterfactual and probabilistic approaches to causation

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Zachary Y. Kerr, Sarah Fields and R. Dawn Comstock


Little is known about the epidemiology of dog sport–related injuries. This study examines injuries among handlers and dogs in the sport of dog agility.


A cross-sectional pilot study captured data on demographics, exposures, and injury for a sample of agility handlers and dogs. Logistic regressions predicted odds of injury.


Survey of 217 handlers and 431 dogs identified 31 handler injuries (1.55 training injuries per 1000 hours, 2.14 competition injuries per 1000 runs) and 38 dog injuries (1.74 training injuries per 1000 hours, 1.72 competition injuries per 1000 runs). Handlers most commonly injured knees (48.4%) and lower trunk (29.0%). Most common diagnoses were strains (51.6%) and sprains (32.3%). Obese handlers had increased odds of injury compared with normal weight handlers (OR = 5.5, P < .001). Dogs most commonly injured front paws (23.7%) and shoulders (15.8%). Most common diagnoses were strains (44.7%) and cut/scrapes (21.1%). Injury was positively associated with dog’s age (P < .05). Handlers more commonly reported positive physical, emotional, and social motivations for participation than competitive.


Despite many health benefits, dog agility poses a risk of injury to both handlers and dogs. Future research on specific mechanisms of injury should drive evidence-based injury prevention strategies.

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Brigid M. Lynch, Andrea Ramirez Varela and Terry Boyle

selection bias on the results of observational studies. Physical activity epidemiology has not adopted these methodological advances as quickly as other disciplines. To address this, the Epidemiology Council of the International Society for Physical Activity and Health (ISPAH) was recently launched. The aim

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Paul D. Loprinzi

Understanding of the objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary patterns of adults with diabetes at the population level is currently limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to report accelerometer-determined PA and sedentary patterns among a national sample of U.S. adults with and without evidence of diabetes and to also explore differences across other comorbidity characteristics. Data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Four hundred seven participants had evidence of diabetes (mean age = 73.4 years), and 1,346 did not have diabetes (mean age = 74.3 years). Results showed that few older adults meet PA guidelines; the majority of their time is spent in sedentary activities; very few engage in more light-intensity PA than sedentary behavior; and older adults with multiple comorbidities engage in less PA and more sedentary behavior than their counterparts. The development and implementation of feasible, effective PA programs for older adults with multiple comorbidities are warranted.

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Earl R. Cooper Jr., Michael S. Ferrara, Martin Mrazik and Steven Casto

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Michael S. Ferrara, W. E. Buckley and Connie L. Peterson

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Caroline A. Macera and Wilma Wooten

This review summarizes information on the rate of injury among adolescents who participate in specific sports or recreational activities. Injury-related mortality is high among adolescents, accounting for over 75% of the deaths occurring among those between 15 and 19 years of age, with about 5% of these deaths attributed to sports injuries. Several difficulties were encountered in conducting this review. There was no standard definition for injury, resulting in widely diverse operational definitions. The underlying denominator and time period used to obtain rates also varied widely. In spite of these difficulties, several sports were identified as particularly dangerous due to the nature of the injury: football for males and gymnastics for females. Consistent injury definitions and larger prospective studies are needed to confirm these rates and to identify risk factors.