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Ángel Luis Clemente Remón, Víctor Jiménez Díaz-Benito, José Emilio Jiménez Beatty and José Antonio Santacruz Lozano

The population of the European Union (EU) is aging steadily. In 2018, 19.7% of its population was made up of senior citizens aged 65 or over, a percentage that is constantly increasing ( Eurostat, 2019 ) and a demographic variance with additional economic consequences for society ( European Union

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Adilson Marques, Miguel Peralta, João Martins, Élvio R. Gouveia and Miguel G. Valeiro

to promote health ( European Commission, 2008 ; WHO, 2010 ) and prevent chronic diseases ( Alves et al., 2016 ). Although there is evidence that vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) is associated with a larger decreased risk of the incidence of chronic diseases than low

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Pamela Wicker and Paul Downward

-Riot, Cuskelly, Auld, & Zakus, 2014 ; Schlesinger & Nagel, 2018 ; Wicker, 2017 ). This requirement is recognized outside of sport by policy makers ( European Commission, 2011 ). One consequence is that agencies such as the European Union (EU) provide funding opportunities for various programs that facilitate

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Erik J. Timmermans, Suzan van der Pas, Elaine M. Dennison, Stefania Maggi, Richard Peter, Maria Victoria Castell, Nancy L. Pedersen, Michael D. Denkinger, Mark H. Edwards, Federica Limongi, Florian Herbolsheimer, Mercedes Sánchez-Martínez, Paola Siviero, Rocio Queipo, Laura A. Schaap, Dorly J.H. Deeg and for the EPOSA research group

Background:

Older adults with osteoarthritis (OA) often report that their disease symptoms are exacerbated by weather conditions. This study examines the association between outdoor physical activity (PA) and weather conditions in older adults from 6 European countries and assesses whether outdoor PA and weather conditions are more strongly associated in older persons with OA than in those without the condition.

Methods:

The American College of Rheumatology classification criteria were used to diagnose OA. Outdoor PA was assessed using the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data on weather parameters were obtained from weather stations.

Results:

Of the 2439 participants (65–85 years), 29.6% had OA in knee, hand and/or hip. Participants with OA spent fewer minutes in PA than participants without OA (Median = 42.9, IQR = 20.0 to 83.1 versus Median = 51.4, IQR = 23.6 to 98.6; P < .01). In the full sample, temperature (B = 1.52; P < .001) and relative humidity (B = –0.77; P < .001) were associated with PA. Temperature was more strongly associated with PA in participants without OA (B = 1.98; P < .001) than in those with the condition (B = 0.48; P = .47).

Conclusions:

Weather conditions are associated with outdoor PA in older adults in the general population. Outdoor PA and weather conditions were more strongly associated in older adults without OA than in their counterparts with OA.

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Signe B. Daugbjerg, Sonja Kahlmeier, Francesca Racioppi, Eva Martin-Diener, Brian Martin, Pekka Oja and Fiona Bull

Background:

Over the past years there has been increasing interest in physical activity promotion and the development of appropriate policy. So far, there has been no comprehensive overview of the activities taking place in Europe in this area of public health policy.

Methods:

Using different search methods, 49 national policy documents on physical activity promotion were identified. An analysis grid covering key features was developed for the analysis of the 27 documents published in English.

Results:

Analysis showed that many general recommendations for policy developments are being followed, for example: general goals were formulated, an implementation plan was included, a timeframe and a responsible body for the implementation was often specified. However, limited evidence for intersectoral collaboration was found. Quantified goals for physical activity were the exception. Population groups most in need such as people with low levels of physical activity were rarely specifically targeted. Most policies emphasized the importance of an evaluation. However, only about half of them indicated a related intention or requirement.

Conclusion:

In recent years there has been a noticeable development of national policy documents on physical activity promotion. Following principles for policy development more closely could increase the effectiveness of their preparation and implementation further.

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Alfred Ruetten, Annika Frahsa, Luuk Engbers, Narcis Gusi, Jorge Mota, Rimantas Pacenka, Jens Troelsen, Jana Vasickova and Anne Vuillemin

Background:

A multilevel theoretical framework of physical activity (PA) promotion that addresses supportive environments, PA behavior, community action, and PA promoting policies is related to research and development in an international comparative study.

Methods:

Most-different and most-similar case selection was applied to data from 8 European Union Member States. Data from semistructured key informant qualitative interviews, focus group interviews with experts and policy-makers, as well as document analysis were linked to corresponding Eurobarometer data.

Results:

The framework on the interplay of environment, PA behavior, community action and policies appears to be working across most different countries. Comprehensive systems of PA infrastructures are interlinked with relatively high levels of PA prevalence. These countries implement comprehensive national policies on PA promotion and show a positive perception of related local governments’ engagement. Less comprehensive systems of infrastructures interplay with lower levels of PA prevalence, less community action and fewer policies. Differences between similar cases are linked to country-specific contexts.

Conclusions:

Framework application and comparative analysis indicates how to relate theory to empirical research and complex data sets. In-depth analysis of country-specific contexts and longitudinal observation on changes within and between countries might advise on how to integrate the framework into intervention research.

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José M. Cancela, Karina Pereira, Irimia Mollinedo, Manuela Ferreira and Pedro Bezerra

27.5% and that in Europe the prevalence was 23.4% ( Guthold, Stevens, Riley, & Bull, 2018 ). In order to achieve health benefits, physical activity guidelines such as those from the World Health Organization ( 2010 ) and the American College of Sports Medicine ( Nelson et al., 2007 ) suggest that

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Chris Riddoch, Dawn Edwards, Angie Page, Karsten Froberg, Sigmund A. Anderssen, Niels Wedderkopp, Søren Brage, Ashley R. Cooper, Luis B. Sardinha, Maarike Harro, Lena Klasson-Heggebø, Willem van Mechelen, Colin Boreham, Ulf Ekelund, Lars Bo Andersen and The European Youth Heart Study Team

Background:

The aim of the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS) is to establish the nature, strength, and interactions between personal, environmental, and lifestyle influences on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in European children.

Methods:

The EYHS is an international study measuring CVD risk factors, and their associated influences, in children. Relationships between these independent factors and risk of disease will inform the design of CVD interventions in children. A minimum of 1000 boys and girls ages 9 and 15 y were recruited from four European countries—Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Portugal. Variables measured included physical, biochemical, lifestyle, psychosocial, and sociodemographic data.

Results:

Of the 5664 children invited to participate, 4169 (74%) accepted. Response rates for most individual tests were moderate to high. All test protocols were well received by the children.

Conclusions:

EYHS protocols are valid, reliable, acceptable to children, and feasible for use in large, field-based studies.

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Emmanuel Macedo

precedent. Indeed, anti-doping rules date back to the 1920s and 1930s. 3 International legal reform against doping, too, came long before UNESCO’s convention. In 1989, the Council of Europe (CE), an international governing body that upholds human rights in the European region, passed the first convention

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Henk Erik Meier, Jörg Hagenah and Malte Jetzke

this claim and argue that, in particular, in a European context, the decline of linear TV has translated into a crisis of niche sports broadcasting. The current case study aims to contribute to the debate regarding possible options for niche sports broadcasting in a multiplatform environment. The sport