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Danielle Lovett Carter and Norelee Kennedy

Background:

Hip arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure. Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is being increasingly recognized as a cause of hip pain in athletes and is a growing indication for arthroscopic surgery. Few studies have attempted to address patient views on outcome after arthroscopy, and no qualitative studies have been carried out to date.

Objectives:

To explore athletes' perceptions of rehabilitation outcome, the rehabilitative process, and return to sport and to gain insight into factors that affected this process.

Methodology:

A retrospective qualitative approach was adopted using semistructured interviews. Eight eligible participants were interviewed. Each had been treated with hip arthroscopy for FAI from September to November 2010. Data were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis.

Results:

Three main themes emerged. (1) The ability to participate in sport; athletes were relatively satisfied with outcome despite some limitations in sporting ability. (2) Perceptions of hip problems; there was a lack of understanding and an association of hip problems with older people among the general public. (3) Athletes' perception of rehabilitation; athletes were dissatisfied with the rehabilitation and sought greater physiotherapy input.

Conclusions:

Overall, athletes were relatively satisfied with their outcome 1 y after hip arthroscopy, despite some having to adapt their sporting activities. Key areas that need to be addressed in future research include factors affecting outcomes of hip arthroscopy, longer-term outcomes, perception of FAI among the public and health practitioners, and the development of a standardized evidence-based rehabilitation protocol.

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Francisco Javier Miranda, Antonio Chamorro, Sergio Rubio and Oscar Rodriguez

Professional sports teams are increasingly using social networks to better connect their sports and businesses to fans and the general public with the aim of providing team-related information, fostering fandom, and building team reputation. However, few, if any, studies have been done that analyze and evaluate the efficacy of this important portion of the professional sports business model from an informationmanagement perspective. This study employs the Facebook Assessment Index (FAI) to effectively compare, assess, and rank the Facebook sites of top European and North American professional teams. The study also shows how information artifacts in sports can be systematically analyzed, evaluated, and compared. In more general terms, the findings and analysis demonstrate how the information perspective can serve as a novel theoretical lens and important dimension in sport management. The results of the study show large differences between teams in the 3 FAI dimensions and a great improvement opportunity in the use of Facebook as a marketing tool. These results not only serve to create a ranking of sport teams but also can be used by sport managers for social-media-benchmarking analysis.

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Niall O’Regan and Seamus Kelly

Building on previous research that explored coaching and coach education in Ireland ( Chambers & Gregg, 2016 ), this article provides a history of the Football Association of Ireland (FAI) and coach education in Ireland. An overview of coach education in Ireland precedes how UEFA policy documents

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Chelsey Walden-Schreiner, Yu-Fai Leung and Myron F. Floyd

Background:

To address increasing prevalence of obesity and associated chronic disease, recent national initiatives have called upon federal agencies to promote healthy lifestyles and provide opportunities for physical activity. In response, the U.S. National Park Service has developed strategies promoting health through physical activity in addition to its well-established biodiversity and landscape conservation mission. Incorporating physical activity measures with routine environmental monitoring would help identify areas where parks can promote active pursuits with minimal environmental impact. This study provides one example of how protocols developed for visitor and environmental monitoring can generate data to evaluate physical activity.

Methods:

Researchers implemented an observational study in high-use meadows of Yosemite National Park during the summer of 2011. Variables measured include the spatial location of visitors and activity type. Metabolic equivalents (METs) were assigned to activity categories and analyzed for average energy expenditure.

Results:

Mean METs values indicated sedentary to light physical activity across the meadows, with greater means in areas with boardwalks or paved pathways.

Conclusions:

Data leveraged in this study provide park managers an example of adapting existing monitoring programs to incorporate indicators relevant to physical activity evaluation and how physical activity may impact resource conditions in national parks.

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Kathryn R. Glaws, Thomas J. Ellis, Timothy E. Hewett and Stephanie Di Stasi

Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a morphological hip condition that can lead to boney abutment of the proximal femur and acetabulum at the end ranges of hip motion. 1 , 2 When symptomatic, this condition is referred to as femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS). This language is gaining

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Cynthia J. Wright and Brent L. Arnold

Context:

Force sense (FS), the proprioceptive ability to detect muscle-force generation, has been shown to be impaired in individuals with functional ankle instability (FAI). Fatigue can also impair FS in healthy individuals, but it is unknown how fatigue affects FS in individuals with FAI.

Objective:

To assess the effect of fatigue on ankle-eversion force-sense error in individuals with and without FAI. Design: Case control with repeated measures.

Setting:

Sports medicine research laboratory.

Participants:

32 individuals with FAI and 32 individuals with no ankle sprains or instability in their lifetime. FAI subjects had a history of ≥1 lateral ankle sprain and giving-way ≥1 episode per month.

Interventions:

Three eversion FS trials were captured per load (10% and 30% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction) using a load cell before and after a concentric eversion fatigue protocol.

Main Outcome Measures:

Trial error was the difference between the target and reproduction forces. Constant error (CE), absolute error (AE), and variable error (VE) were calculated from 3 trial errors. A Group × Fatigue × Load repeated-measures ANOVA was performed for each error.

Results:

There were no significant 3-way interactions or 2-way interactions involving group (all P > .05). CE and AE had a significant 2-way interaction between load and fatigue (CE: F 1,62 = 8.704, P = .004; AE: F 1,62 = 4.024, P = .049), and VE had a significant main effect for fatigue (F 1,62 = 5.130, P = .027), all of which indicated increased FS error with fatigue at 10% load. However, at 30% load only VE increased with fatigue. The FAI group had greater error as measured by AE (F 1,62 = 4.571, P = .036) but not CE or VE (P > .05).

Conclusions:

Greater AE indicates that FAI individuals are less accurate in their force production. Fatigue impaired force sense in all subjects equally. These deficits provide evidence of impaired proprioception with fatigue and in individuals with FAI.

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Cathleen Brown, Scott Ross, Rick Mynark and Kevin Guskiewicz

Context:

Functional ankle instability (FAI) is difficult to identify and quantify.

Objective:

To compare joint position sense (JPS), time to stabilization (TTS), and electromy-ography (EMG) of ankle musculature in recreational athletes with and without FAI.

Design:

Case-control compared with t tests and ANOVAs.

Setting:

Sports medicine research laboratory.

Participants:

20 recreational athletes.

Main Outcome Measures:

Passive angle reproduction, TTS, and mean EMG amplitude of the tibialis anterior, peroneals, lateral gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles during single-leg-jump landing.

Results:

No differences in JPS or medial-lateral TTS measures between groups. Significantly longer anterior-posterior TTS (P < .05) in the unstable ankle group. The stable ankle group had significantly higher mean EMG soleus amplitude after landing (P < .05). No other significant differences were found for mean EMG amplitudes before or after landing.

Conclusions:

Subjects with FAI demonstrated deficits in landing stability and soleus muscle activity during landing that may represent chronic adaptive changes following injury.

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Michael E. Powers, Bernadette D. Buckley, Thomas W. Kaminski, Tricia J. Hubbard and Cindy Ortiz

Context:

The combined effects of strength and proprioception training, especially in individuals with ankle instability, have not been studied extensively.

Objective:

To examine the influence of 6 weeks of strength and proprioception training on measures of muscle fatigue and static balance in those with unilateral functional ankle instability (FAI).

Design:

Pretest–posttest, randomized groups.

Setting:

A climate-controlled sports-medicine research laboratory.

Subjects:

38 subjects with self-reported unilateral FAI.

Measurements:

Muscle fatigue was determined using the median power frequency (f med) from an electromyographic signal, and static balance was assessed using center-of-pressure values obtained from a triaxial force plate.

Results:

There were no significant effects of the strength or proprioception training on our measures of muscle fatigue and static balance.

Conclusions:

Strength training, proprioception training, and the combination of the 2 failed to improve postural-stability characteristics in a group of subjects with FAI.

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Blair Crewther, Zbigniew Obminski and Christian Cook

Purpose:

To examine the steroid hormone effect on the physical performance of young athletes during an Olympic weightlifting competition.

Methods:

26 boys and 26 girls were monitored across 2 weightlifting competitions. Pre- and post-competition testosterone (T), cortisol (C) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-s) were measured in blood, with pre-event free T (FT) and the free androgen index (FAI) calculated. Body mass (BM) and weightlifting performance were recorded.

Results:

The boys had a larger BM, superior performance with more T, FT and a higher FAI than girls (p < .01). Although C (32%) and DHEA-s (8%) levels were elevated across competition, no sex differences in hormone reactivity were seen. In boys, DHEA-s correlated with performance (r = .46), but not after controlling for BM (r = .14). For girls, T correlated with performance (r = -0.51) after BM was controlled.

Conclusion:

The sex differences that emerge during puberty were observable, whereby the boys were larger and stronger with a more anabolic profile than girls. Individual DHEA-s (boys) and T (girls) levels were related to performance, but BM appeared to be acting as a mediating (boys) or suppressing (girls) variable. This adds new insight regarding the hormonal contribution to competitive performance in young athletes.

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Ashley L. Kapron, Stephen K. Aoki, Christopher L. Peters, Steve A. Maas, Michael J. Bey, Roger Zauel and Andrew E. Anderson

Accurate measurements of in-vivo hip kinematics may elucidate the mechanisms responsible for impaired function and chondrolabral damage in hips with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The objectives of this study were to quantify the accuracy and demonstrate the feasibility of using dual fluoroscopy to measure in-vivo hip kinematics during clinical exams used in the assessment of FAI. Steel beads were implanted into the pelvis and femur of two cadavers. Specimens were imaged under dual fluoroscopy during the impingement exam, FABER test, and rotational profile. Bead locations measured with model-based tracking were compared with those measured using dynamic radiostereometric analysis. Error was quantified by bias and precision, defined as the average and standard deviation of the differences between tracking methods, respectively. A normal male volunteer was also imaged during clinical exams. Bias and precision along a single axis did not exceed 0.17 and 0.21 mm, respectively. Comparing kinematics, positional error was less than 0.48 mm and rotational error was less than 0.58°. For the volunteer, kinematics were reported as joint angles and bone-bone distance. These results demonstrate that dual fluoroscopy and model-based tracking can accurately measure hip kinematics in living subjects during clinical exams of the hip.