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Simon A. Feros, Warren B. Young, and Brendan J. O’Brien

Fast bowling is a specialized discipline within the game of cricket. Typically, fast bowlers form the majority of the “bowling attack” against the opposition team. Each fast bowler presents with varying skill sets and abilities. Some bowlers are renowned for their excellent bowling accuracy (eg

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Eric L. Sauers, Danelle L. Dykstra, R. Curtis Bay, Kellie Huxel Bliven, and Alison R. Snyder


Throwing-related arm injuries are common in softball pitchers and may lead to diminished health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Arm symptoms such as pain have been reported to be more common in healthy overhead athletes than nonoverhead athletes. Furthermore, more frequent shoulder symptoms and lower shoulder function have been demonstrated in athletes with self-reported history of shoulder injury.


To evaluate the relationship between arm injury history, current pain rating, and HRQOL assessed via 2 region-specific patient self-report scales in high school and college softball pitchers.




High school and college athletic training facilities.


25 female softball pitchers (10 high school, 15 college; 18 ± 2 y, 169 ± 7.6 cm, 67.5 ± 10.3 kg).


Self-reported arm injury history and rating of current pain and HRQOL were collected during the late season.

Main Outcome Measures:

A self-report questionnaire of arm injury history and current pain rating was used, and HRQOL was assessed via 2 region-specific scales: the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) and the Functional Arm Scale for Throwers© (FAST©). Correlational analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between arm injury history, current pain rating, and the DASH total score and sport module and the FAST total score, pitching module, and subscales.


A history of arm injury from throwing was reported by 64% of participants, 31% of whom had to cease activity for more than 10 d. The most common site of arm time-loss injury was the shoulder (81%). Mild to severe shoulder pain during the competitive season was reported by 60% of respondents. The DASH and the FAST total scores were significantly correlated (r = .79, P < .001). Respondent rating of shoulder pain correlated significantly with the DASH total (r = .69) and sports module (r = .69) and the FAST total (r = .71), pitching module (r = .65), and pain (r = .73), impairment (r = .76), functional-limitation (r = .79), disability (r = .52), and societal-limitations (r = .46) subscales.


History of arm injury is common in female high school and college softball pitchers. Severe injury and elevated pain are associated with lower HRQOL that extends beyond the playing field.

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Jeffrey A. Rothschild, Andrew E. Kilding, and Daniel J. Plews

-CHO, high-fat (LCHF) diets, restricting CHO-ingestion between training sessions, increasing CHO-ingestion before or during exercise, and exercising in the overnight-fasted state. Overnight fasting reduces liver glycogen ( Nilsson & Hultman, 1973 ), but does not affect muscle glycogen concentration ( Knapik

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Dean J. McNamara, Tim J. Gabbett, Peter Blanch, and Luke Kelly

Cricket, like many other popular international team sports, requires varying player types to perform very specific roles within the team. One of these roles in cricket is fast bowling. Fast bowlers are required to bowl at high ball velocities to opposition batters. Fast bowling has been associated

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Dana M. Lis, Daniel Kings, and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

A variety of special diets are adopted by track-and-field athletes for a multitude of reasons. Gluten-free (GFD), vegetarian, and fasting diets are among the more prevalent diets adopted for health, ethical, religious, and performance purposes. A low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides

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Dalia Mickeviciene, Renata Rutkauskaite, Dovile Valanciene, Diana Karanauskiene, Marius Brazaitis, and Albertas Skurvydas

adaptation involves two memory processes: (a) a fast process whereby motor output both adapts and decays quickly and (b) a slow process whereby it adapts and decays more gradually ( Smith, Ghazizadeh, & Shadmehr, 2006 ; Ungerleider, Doyon, & Karni, 2002 ). Older adults usually exhibit impairments in

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Afshin Samani and Mathias Kristiansen

similarity of synergy components across two velocity conditions (slow and fast) of bench press and the intersubject similarity of the synergy components within each of the velocity conditions in an attempt to elucidate the role of lifting velocity on muscle coordination. We hypothesized that intrasubject

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Matt Greig and Benjamin Child

Epidemiological research in cricket has highlighted the risk associated with fast bowling, accounting for up to 66% of all injuries 1 and with an annual injury prevalence of 20.6%. 2 Lumbar stress fractures are the most prevalent injury, accountable for 15% of missed playing time. 2 The fast

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Giuseppe delli Paoli, Denise van de Laarschot, Edith C.H. Friesema, Remco Verkaik, Antonia Giacco, Rosalba Senese, Pascal P. Arp, P. Mila Jhamai, Stefano M. Pagnotta, Linda Broer, André G. Uitterlinden, Antonia Lanni, M. Carola Zillikens, and Pieter de Lange

scientifically recognized as possible solutions to this public health challenge ( Jaspers et al., 2017 ). Previously performed studies on the beneficial effect of fasting and endurance exercise (for 12 and 6 weeks, respectively; Bhutani et al., 2013 ; Van Proeyen et al., 2011 ) did not include data on body

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Carolina F. Wilke, Felipe Augusto P. Fernandes, Flávio Vinícius C. Martins, Anísio M. Lacerda, Fabio Y. Nakamura, Samuel P. Wanner, and Rob Duffield

postmatch recovery in soccer concluded that while sprint, hormonal, and skill/technical parameters are restored within 72 hours, muscle damage, countermovement jump (CMJ), and perceived well-being take longer time. 3 However, high interindividual variability of the recovery time line exists (ie, faster and