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Susan Heaney, Helen O’Connor, Janelle Gifford and Geraldine Naughton

Purpose:

This study aimed to compare strategies for assessing nutritional adequacy in the dietary intake of elite female athletes.

Methods:

Dietary intake was assessed using an adapted food-frequency questionnaire in 72 elite female athletes from a variety of sports. Nutritional adequacy was evaluated and compared using mean intake; the proportion of participants with intakes below Australian nutrient reference values (NRV), U.S. military dietary reference intakes (MDRI), and current sports nutrition recommendations; and probability estimates of nutrient inadequacy.

Results:

Mean energy intake was 10,551 ± 3,836 kJ/day with macronutrient distribution 18% protein, 31% fat, and 46% carbohydrate, consistent with Australian acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges. Mean protein intake (1.6 g · kg−1 · d−1) was consistent with (>1.2 g · kg−1 · d−1), and carbohydrate intake (4.5 g · kg−1 · d−1), below, current sports nutrition recommendations (>5 g · kg−1 · d−1), with 30% and 65% of individuals not meeting these levels, respectively. Mean micronutrient intake met the relevant NRV and MDRI except for vitamin D and folate. A proportion of participants failed to meet the estimated average requirement for folate (48%), calcium (24%), magnesium (19%), and iron (4%). Probability estimates of inadequacy identified intake of folate (44%), calcium (22%), iron (19%), and magnesium (15%) as inadequate.

Conclusion:

Interpretation of dietary adequacy is complex and varies depending on whether the mean, proportion of participants below the relevant NRV, or statistical probability estimate of inadequacy is used. Further research on methods to determine dietary adequacy in athlete populations is required.

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Marina Nikić, Željko Pedišić, Zvonimir Šatalić, Saša Jakovljević and Danielle Venus

Purpose:

The aim of this study was to assess the nutrient intakes of elite junior basketball players in comparison with nonathletes.

Methods:

A previously designed food frequency questionnaire was undertaken by 57 male elite junior basketball players 15 to 16 years of age and 53 nonathlete peers.

Results:

Mean estimated energy intake was more than 700 kcal higher in basketball players than in the nonathletes (p = .002). In both groups estimated energy intake was ~14% from protein, 38% from fat, and ~48% from carbohydrates. For the basketball players, estimated protein intake was below 1.4 g/kg in 32% of the group and above 1.7 g/kg in 51%, while carbohydrate intake was below 6 g/kg in 56%. Percentages of participants who apparently failed to meet the estimated average requirement for micronutrients were higher in the nonathlete group. The nutrients most likely to fail to meet the recommendations for nutrient density were vitamin A (~70%), zinc (49% in basketball players and 30% in nonathletes), niacin and calcium (~30% for both micronutrients in both groups).

Conclusion:

Within the limitations of the survey methodology, elite junior basketball players appear to consume higher absolute energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intakes than nonathletes, but the contribution of macronutrients to daily energy intake and the nutrient density of food choices was similar for both groups. Elite junior basketball players might benefit from nutrition education targeting carbohydrate and protein intake. Dietary modifications that increase intakes of vitamin A, zinc, calcium and niacin in the diets of both groups might also be of value.

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Andrea J. Braakhuis, Will G. Hopkins, Timothy E. Lowe and Elaine C. Rush

A quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed to determine antioxidant intake in athletes. The questionnaire will be valuable for researchers wishing to standardize antioxidant intake or simply document habitual intake during an intervention trial. One hundred thirteen athletes participated in the validity study, of whom 96 completed the questionnaire and blood test, 81 completed the 7-d food diary and questionnaire, and 63 completed the 7-d food diary and blood test. Validity was investigated by comparing total and food-group antioxidant intakes from the questionnaire with those from a subsequent 7-d food diary. Measures of construct validity were determined by comparing a biomarker of antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing ability of plasma) in a blood sample with antioxidant intakes from the questionnaire and diary. The correlation between the diary and questionnaire energy-adjusted estimates of total antioxidant intake was modest (.38; 90% confidence limits, ± .14); the correlation was highest for antioxidants from cereals (.55; ± .11), which contributed the greatest proportion (31%) of the total antioxidant intake. Correlations were also high for coffee and tea (.51; ± .15) and moderate for vegetables (.34; ± .16) and fruit (.31; ± .16). The correlation of the plasma biomarker with the questionnaire estimate was small (.28; ± .15), but the correlation with the diary estimate was inconsequential (–.03; ± .15). One-week test–retest reliability of the questionnaire’s estimates of antioxidant intake in 20 participants was high (.83; ± .16). In conclusion, the FFQ is less labor intensive for participants and researchers than a 7-d diary and appears to be at least as trustworthy for estimating antioxidant intake.

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Giovanna Ghiani, Sara Magnani, Azzurra Doneddu, Gianmarco Sainas, Virginia Pinna, Marco Caboi, Girolamo Palazzolo, Filippo Tocco and Antonio Crisafulli

multivitamin and mineral complex was also included in the diet. Table 1 Energy Expenditure Estimated by the Armband and Energy Intake Estimated by the FFQ Kilocalories Proteins (g) Lipids (g) Carbohydrates (g) Armband 3,109 – – – FFQ 2,955 89 139 349 Food stored a 3,041 103 152 355 Note. FFQ = food

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D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Kathleen Woolf and Louise Burke

methodologies are commonly classified as retrospective (recalling what was consumed) or prospective (measuring future intake). Retrospective methods include dietary recalls (typically the 24-hr recall), food frequency questionnaires (FFQ), and diet histories. Prospective methods encompass food records as well

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Katherine Elizabeth Black, Alistair David Black and Dane Frances Baker

: 112.3 ± 34.2 g/day 1.4 ± 0.5 g·kg −1 ·day −1 ∼31% b Under 19s: 111.8 ± 34.8 g/day 1.3 ± 0.5 g·kg −1 ·day −1 ∼29% b College/varsity Imamura et al. ( 2013 ) Not stated FFQ-interviewed by dietitian All Japan Collegiate Championship Forwards ( n  = 18) Backs ( n  = 16) Weight (kg) Forwards: 87.3 ± 8

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Sofiya Alhassan, Christine W. St. Laurent, Sarah Burkart, Cory J. Greever and Matthew N. Ahmadi

, Baur LA . Reliability and validity of a short FFQ for assessing the dietary habits of 2-5-year-old children, Sydney, Australia . Public Health Nutr . 2014 ; 17 ( 3 ): 498 – 509 . PubMed ID: 23632037 doi:10.1017/S1368980013000414 10.1017/S1368980013000414 24. Bruni O , Ottaviano S

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Matthew Pearce, Tom R.P. Bishop, Stephen Sharp, Kate Westgate, Michelle Venables, Nicholas J. Wareham and Søren Brage

principal investigators of the Fenland Study and the Biobank Validation Study. In particular we would like to thank Tom White, Stefanie Hollidge and Lewis Griffiths for assistance with physical activity data processing, and Eirini Trichia from the MRC Epidemiology Unit for processing the FFQ data with the

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Erika Rees-Punia, Charles E. Matthews, Ellen M. Evans, Sarah K. Keadle, Rebecca L. Anderson, Jennifer L. Gay, Michael D. Schmidt, Susan M. Gapstur and Alpa V. Patel

, A. , Lillegaard , I.T. , Gran , J.M. , Drevon , C.A. , Blomhoff , R. , & Andersen , L.F. ( 2011 ). Relative validity of fruit and vegetable intake estimated from an FFQ, using carotenoid and flavonoid biomarkers and the method of triads . British Journal of Nutrition, 105 ( 10

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frequency questionnaire (FFQ); (iv) Quality of life (QOF) questionnaire before and after a 6-month period. The jockey group received a 6-month intervention which involves (i) regular nutritional consultation with individualised advice and; (ii) exercise training that focused on osteogenic stimulation (i