Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 12 items for :

Clear All
Restricted access

Koya Mine, Takashi Nakayama, Steve Milanese and Karen Grimmer

Context:

Posterior shoulder tightness (PST) and glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit (GIRD) can contribute to shoulder pain suffered by athletes engaged in overhead sporting activities. Stretching is a common intervention to resolve PST and GIRD, but it has weak evidence of effectiveness to date.

Objective:

This systematic review aimed to collect and synthesize effectiveness data from English- and Japanese-language randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating stretching interventions for PST and GIRD.

Evidence Acquisition:

7 English databases and 3 Japanese databases were searched from inception until December 5, 2015. Only English- and Japanese-language RCTs were considered. Risk of bias in the included studies was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Data were synthesized qualitatively.

Evidence Synthesis:

Eight English-language and 2 Japanese-language papers of low to high quality were included. There was moderate evidence for positive immediate and short-term effects of cross-body stretch on PST and GIRD in asymptomatic young subjects. Moderate evidence was found to suggest that active sleeper stretch might not be more effective than no intervention to improve PST and GIRD in the short term.

Conclusions:

Cross-body stretch can be effective to improve PST and GIRD in asymptomatic young subjects immediately or in the short term. Further study with methodological rigor is necessary to investigate the long-term effectiveness of stretching interventions on PST and GIRD in symptomatic patients.

Restricted access

Stephen J. Thomas, Kathleen A. Swanik, Charles “Buz” Swanik, Kellie C. Huxel and John D. Kelly IV

Context:

Pathologies such as anterior instability and impingement are common in baseball and have been linked to decreases in internal rotation (IR) and concurrent increases in external rotation (ER). In addition, alterations to scapular position have been identified in this population, but the chronology of these adaptations is uncertain.

Objectives:

To determine whether there is a change in range of motion and scapular position after a single baseball season.

Design:

Prospective cohort.

Setting:

High school.

Participants:

19 high school baseball players (age 16.6 ± 0.8 y, mass 78.6 ± 12.0 kg, height 180.3 ± 6.2 cm).

Interventions:

Subjects were measured for all dependent variables at preseason and postseason.

Main Outcome Measures:

Participants were measured for glenohumeral (GH) IR and ER with the scapula stabilized. Total GH range of motion was calculated as the sum of IR and ER. Scapular upward rotation was measured at 0°, 60°, 90°, and 120° of GH abduction in the scapular plane, and scapular protraction, at 0°, hands on hips, and 90° of GH abduction.

Results:

Overall, the dominant arm had significantly less GH IR (11.4°, P = .005) and significantly more ER (4.7°, P = .001) than the nondominant arm. Total motion in the dominant arm was significantly less than in the nondominant arm (6.7°, P = .001). Scapular upward rotation in the dominant arm significantly increased at 0° (2.4°, P = .002) and significantly decreased at 90° (3.2°, P = .001) and 120° (3.2°, P < .001) of abduction from preseason to postseason. Scapular protraction in the nondominant arm significantly decreased at 45° (0.32 cm, P = .017) and 90° (0.33 cm, P = .006) from preseason to postseason.

Conclusion:

These data suggest that scapular adaptations may be acquired over a relatively short period (12 wk) in a competitive baseball season. Competitive high school baseball players also presented with significant GH motion differences between their dominant and nondominant arms. Total motion was also significantly less in the dominant arm than in the nondominant arm.

Restricted access

Hande Guney, Gulcan Harput, Filiz Colakoglu and Gul Baltaci

Context:

Glenohumeral (GH) internal-rotation deficit (GIRD) and lower eccentric external-rotator (ER) to concentric internal-rotator (IR) strength (ER:IR) ratio have been documented as risk factors for shoulder injuries, but there is no information on whether GIRD has an adverse effect on ER:IR ratio in adolescent overhead athletes.

Objectives:

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GIRD on functional ER:IR ratio of the adolescent overhead athletes.

Design:

Cross-sectional study.

Setting:

University research laboratory.

Participants:

52 adolescent overhead athletes.

Main Outcome Measures:

To determine GIRD, the range of GH IR and ER motion was measured with a digital inclinometer. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess eccentric and concentric IR and ER muscle strength of the dominant and nondominant shoulders. One-way ANCOVA where sport type was set as a covariate was used to analyze the difference between athletes with and without GIRD.

Results:

After standardized examinations of all shoulders, the athletes were divided into 2 groups, shoulders with (n = 27) and without GIRD (n = 25). There was a significant difference between groups in functional ER:IR ratio (P < .001). Athletes with GIRD had lower ER:IR ratio (0.56) than athletes without GIRD (0.83).

Conclusions:

As GIRD has an adverse effect on functional ratio of the shoulder-rotator muscles, interventions for adolescent overhead athletes should include improving GH-rotation range of motion.

Restricted access

W. Steven Tucker and Stephen W. Slone

Context:

Clinicians use various stretching techniques to prevent the onset of and treat glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit (GIRD). It is unknown which stretching technique is the most effective.

Objective:

To investigate the acute effects of hold–relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) with and without vibration therapy on internal rotation in individuals with GIRD.

Design:

2-within (stretch × time) comparison with repeated measures.

Setting:

Controlled laboratory.

Participants:

11 male current and former overhead athletes (19.8 ± 1.4 y, 184.5 ± 4.5 cm, 91.8 ± 11.6 kg) who presented with GIRD.

Interventions:

At 3 separate sessions, participants performed 1 of 3 randomly assigned stretches: hold–relax PNF (PNF), hold–relax PNF in combination with a whole-body-vibration unit set at 30 Hz (PNF-V), and static stretch (SS). Pretest and posttest maximum passive glenohumeral internal-rotation measurements were taken with a digital protractor.

Main Outcome Measures:

The dependent variables were the mean glenohumeral internal-rotation measurements taken at the pretest and posttest. The influence of stretch (PNF, PNF-V, and SS) and time (pretest and posttest) on mean glenohumeral internal rotation was compared using a 3 × 2 factorial ANOVA with repeated measures on both variables (P ≤ .05).

Results:

There was a stretch-by-time interaction (F 2,20 = 34.697, P < .001). Post hoc testing revealed that the PNF posttest (73.0° ± 10.4°) was greater than the PNF pretest (60.0° ± 11.8°), the PNF-V posttest (74.7° ± 10.0°) was greater than the PNF-V pretest (57.4° ± 10.4°), and the SS posttest (67.0° ± 10.7°) was greater than the SS pretest (60.1° ± 9.4°). When comparing the posttest values, the PNF-V posttest was greater than the SS posttest.

Conclusions:

All 3 stretches (PNF, PNF-V, and SS) resulted in acute increases in glenohumeral internal rotation in individuals presenting with GIRD. The PNF-V stretch resulted in the greatest increase and would be the most clinically beneficial for patients with GIRD.

Restricted access

Ketra L. Armstrong

Black consumers' general sport attendance is relatively poor; however, their attendance at historically Black college/university (HBCU) sport events is noteworthy. The purpose of this study was to examine how factors such as general perception of sport, psychosocial involvement with HBCU sports, and intensity of ethnic identification influenced Black consumers' (n = 278) attendance at HBCU sports and their general/non-HBCU sport consumption patterns. Descriptive statistics revealed that the respondents attended HBCU sports more frequently than they did any other type of sport events and were also avid consumers of televised sports. Multivariate multiple regression analyses revealed that intensity of ethnic identification and psychosocial involvement with HBCU sports significantly influenced HBCU sports attendance frequency. Moreover, psychosocial involvement with HBCU sports exerted a profound and positive influence on general sport consumption. This study offered an examination of the social psychology that may under gird Blacks' consumption of sport.

Restricted access

Nicole D. Harshbarger, Bradly L. Eppelheimer, Tamara C. Valovich McLeod and Cailee Welch McCarty

Clinical Scenario:

It has been suggested that posterior shoulder tightness is a common contributor to shoulder impingement in overhead-throwing athletes. The incidence of shoulder pain in the general population has been reported to be as high as 27%, and as many as 74% of the patients who were seen for shoulder issues had signs of impingement. Particularly regarding physically active adults, shoulder impingement is frequent among overhead-throwing athletes and may lead to lost participation in sport, as well as other injuries including labral pathologies. Therefore, finding an effective mechanism to reduce posterior shoulder tightness in overhead athletes is important and may help prevent impingement-type injuries. Typically, posterior shoulder tightness is identified by measuring horizontal humeral adduction; although another clinical measure that is commonly used is the bilateral measurement of glenohumeral internal-rotation (IR) range of motion (ROM). It is important to note, however, that the measurement of glenohumeral IR ROM specifically aims to identify glenohumeral IR ROM deficits (GIRD). Although GIRD is believed to be a leading contributor to posterior shoulder tightness, this measure alone may not capture the full spectrum of posterior shoulder tightness. While treatment interventions to correct any ROM deficits typically include a stretching protocol to help increase IR, joint mobilizations have been found to produce greater mobility of soft tissue and capsular joints. However, it is unclear whether the combination of both joint mobilizations and a stretching protocol will produce even larger gains of ROM that will have greater longevity for the patient suffering from posterior shoulder tightness.

Focused Clinical Question:

Does the use of joint mobilizations combined with a stretching protocol more effectively increase glenohumeral IR ROM in adult physically active individuals who participate in overhead sports and are suffering from posterior shoulder tightness, compared with a stretching protocol alone?

Restricted access

Jeffrey G. Williams, Lauryn Darnall and Conrad Schumann

. Comparing those measures bilaterally would have supported assessment of GH total arc and the presence/absence of glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD). Future investigations should explore the relationship between shoulder and spine motion among baseball players with and without documented GIRD. The

Restricted access

Julien Le Gal, Mickael Begon, Benoit Gillet and Isabelle Rogowski

. 14 When higher than 20°, this glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) 10 , 15 is associated with altered joint kinematics, which may lead to shoulder pathologies. 10 Consequently, prophylactic programs for tennis players should focus on maintaining range of motion in internal rotation at the

Restricted access

Jin-Young Park, Junhyun Kim, Beom Ho Seo, Ho Dong Yu, Ju Hyun Sim, Jae Hyung Lee, Kyung Soo Oh and Seok Won Chung

. Table 4 The Angle of Scapular Position at 150° Forward Elevation With Specified Disease and Other Concomitant Disease UR ST IR PRO AT GIRD (n = 212) 170.6 (5.0) 98.8 (6.0) 54.0 (21.3) 68.5 (7.8) −37.6 (6.8) Others (n = 107) 169.7 (5.3) 99.3 (5.8) 53.0 (20.7) 68.7 (7.5) −35.7 (7.4) P value .14 .43 .70

Restricted access

Scott W. Cheatham and Kyle R. Stull

players . J Sport Rehabil . 2018 ; 27 ( 6 ): 530 – 535 . doi:10.1123/jsr.2016-0240 10.1123/jsr.2016-0240 5. Fairall RR , Cabell L , Boergers RJ , Battaglia F . Acute effects of self-myofascial release and stretching in overhead athletes with GIRD . J Bodyw Mov Ther . 2017 ; 21 ( 3 ): 648