This article examines German print sport journalists’ perceptions, experiences, and relationships with Bundesliga clubs’ public relations (PR) staffers and each club’s designated press spokesperson, as well the impact of a competitive, multitier 21st-century media environment on their jobs. All Bundesliga clubs are now disseminating more multimedia content on their own through official Web sites and social media such as Twitter and Facebook. Meanwhile, the German newspaper industry is in a state of transformation and decreased prominence among mediums in German sport journalism. A survey of print journalists who cover Bundesliga clubs showed that these changes have affected the historic symbiotic relationship between the sporting press and Bundesliga clubs. Power and media autonomy have increased for Bundesliga clubs and their designated press spokespersons, while print reporters are more dependent on the clubs’ PR staffers to provide access. The surveyed journalists recognize the increasing power of television in German sport journalism, but nearly half do not consider this as negative for their jobs. These print sport journalists are called on to find new ways and types of media content to begin restoring the needed balance in a symbiotic relationship between independent press and PR, while also distinguishing their work from televised media content.
Christoph G. Grimmer and Edward M. Kian
Joerg Koenigstorfer, Andrea Groeppel-Klein, and Marco Schmitt
This article reports results from a longitudinal field study examining the psychological processes underlying soccer fans’ loyalty toward their clubs and fans’ emotional states depending on the seasonal outcome of the clubs. We found that fans’ perceptions of three relationship strength indicators—satisfaction, self-connection, and intimate commitment—and the levels of basking in reflected glory (BIRGing) did not decrease and cutting off reflected failure (CORFing) did not increase when soccer clubs of the German Bundesliga were relegated to a lower division. The levels of BIRGing, self-connection, and intimate commitment in fact increased after this event, producing intense positive, negative, and mixed emotions in fans. The results support the notion that fandom is about expressing identity and attitude to life, sharing intimate details with the club, and standing by it, in both good and bad times. Thus fans and their clubs are strongly bound to each other.
Niels van Quaquebeke and Steffen R. Giessner
Many fouls committed in football (called soccer in some countries) are ambiguous, and there is no objective way of determining who is the “true” perpetrator or the “true” victim. Consequently, fans as well as referees often rely on a variety of decision cues when judging such foul situations. Based on embodiment research, which links perceptions of height to concepts of strength, power, and aggression, we argue that height is going to be one of the decision cues used. As a result, people are more likely to attribute a foul in an ambiguous tackle situation to the taller of two players. We find consistent support for our hypothesis, not only in field data spanning the last seven UEFA Champions League and German Bundesliga seasons, as well as the last three FIFA World Cups, but also in two experimental studies. The resulting dilemma for refereeing in practice is discussed.
Ralph Beneke and Renate M. Leithäuser
the successful return to men’s football competition in the German Bundesliga, other leagues could also adopt the developed health and safety procedures 3 and return to competition. Professional football/soccer and other events like Formula 1 are characterized by a huge media presence and consequently
Mark L. Howard
performance and compares top-division German soccer coaches with corporate CEOs. Frick uses 20 seasons of data from the German Bundesliga, examining 131 managers who were terminated during that time frame. As we know, poor results often lead to coaches’ losing their jobs, but there are also a number of
Philip Furley and Alexander Roth
this using the BAP. Therefore, the second study utilized the NBCSP to analyze a sample of penalties from the German Bundesliga soccer games to explore potential differences in preperformance NVB associated with successful and unsuccessful soccer penalties. Study 1: Development and Validation of the
Gidon Jakar and Stephanie Gerretsen
’s La Liga (10 appearances), the English Premier League (eight appearances), and the German Bundesliga (four appearances). Figure 2 displays the number of appearances based on the maximum stage reach. We divided the figure based on the most successful leagues (the four big leagues), a second group
Paul S. Bradley and Jack D. Ade
scientifically. 9 Using the traditional approach, physical match performances have been quantified across competitions such as the English Premier League, 10 , 11 Italian Serie A, 6 , 12 Spanish La Liga, 13 French Ligue 1, 14 and German Bundesliga 15 in addition to the European Champions League 16 , 17 and
other clubs. Given the fluidity of invasion sports such as soccer, identifying alternative predictors of team performance has proven challenging. In this study, three seasons (2011–2014) of team game-day data ( N = 1,514 observations) from the German Bundesliga were used to test the impact of player
Dawn Scott, Dean Norris, and Ric Lovell
and success across a season in German Bundesliga soccer teams . Int J Sports Med . 2015 ; 36 ( 7 ): 563 – 566 . PubMed ID: 25760152 doi:10.1055/s-0034-1398578 25760152 10.1055/s-0034-1398578 11. Johnston RD , Gabbett TJ , Jenkins DG , Hulin BT . Influence of physical qualities on post